Wham, Blang thank you man

At the Museum of Modern Art in New York, they have just held three focus groups around Roy Lichtenstein's painting Keds, a pair of baseball boots on a yellow, zig-zag background.

One group said that Moma shouldn't have images like that. It made made them think of children who are violent and steal each other's trainers. A second thought it was too jazzy for the museum. The third thought it was fantastic.

The founding father of Pop Art would have been amused to know that he remained controversial at his death. He certainly died one of the most viewed artists in the world.

U2's world tour uses a dazzling animation of his cartoons of seasides and fighter planes, lit up by perpendicular lasers, in their Pop Mart show. France's Bibliotheque Nationale has a massive tapestry designed by him in its main hall.

Unfortunately, you can't see him at London's Tate Gallery. His quintessential comic-strip work Wham! is not currently on show. The Tate has a space reserved for artists who have just died but, at two metres high by four metres wide, Wham! is too big to fit there.

That's a shame for Simon Wilson, the Tate's curator of interpretation. He owes his job to Lichtenstein and Wham! He joined the Tate in 1967, a year after the gallery, to condemnation internally and externally, had purchased Wham!

At his interview, Wilson gave a talk on Wham! while the other candidates gave their talks on Turner and Constable. He demolished the view that Lichtenstein's paintings were merely blown-up comic strips. The comic strips were simply his source material, Wilson said, in the same way that the Suffolk landscapes were Constable's source material. He eased the trustees' fears, telling them that Lichtenstein's comic strips were still lifes, that his art had great formal purity.

Wilson said yesterday: "Lichtenstein took a sketch of a comic strip, treated it as his motif and adapted it into a painting. Because the comic strip images are two-dimensional, they increase the degree of abstraction. He married figuration and abstraction. He simplified and re-drew with a powerful sense of form, evolving a dramatic new synthesis between the demands of abstraction and the urge to represent reality."

Wilson also notes the irony that Lichtenstein's images drew a lot on advertising and came to be continually used by advertising. Numerous advertisers now make graphics with his trademark black Benday dots and also draw in thick, dynamic, sinuous black lines.

But art historians and curators are agreed that at his death Lichtenstein must be seen as more than a pop artist. Susan Ferleger Brades, director of London's Hayward Gallery, which will be showing Keds at its "Objects of Desire" exhibition next week, says: "He was certainly one of the greatest American artists of this century, and I would say he was one of the greatest artists of any nationality. You can look at Keds and think of a pair of baseball boots, you can also think of Van Gogh's potato digger's shoes. Lichtenstein was crucial in the development of Pop Art, but he was very deeply affected by the history of art in his work, which shows a professional knowledge of the work of Seurat, of cubism, of abstract expressionism. He was crucial in transforming the direction of art in public understanding and what art might be.

"At this year's Venice Biennale he showed a relief of a house which came out of the wall. It invaded one's space from the wall and played with one's understanding of perspective, of inside and outside."

Margit Rowell, chief curator of prints and drawings at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, who knew the artist, adds that his work continued to develop and surprise. His most recent exhibition there contained print woodcuts of Japanese landscapes, a far cry from the subject matter of Pop Art, but still in Benday dots and flat applications of colour.

The art critic David Sylvester in an article reprinted in his book About Modern Art wrote, as long ago as 1969: "He evidently relishes the element of certainty, the knowing `exactly what it's going to look like.' And the pictures themselves, hard and precise and cool, look as if they were about certainty. But they aren't about certainty and it's largely the interplay between certainty and uncertainty that makes them go along as they do, being surprising, though they have the look of an art that is not going to sustain its impact."

If Lichtenstein's work transcends the comic strip source aesthetically, it also does so financially, continuing to sell for funny money. Only this summer, Blang! from 1962, showing a tank hit by a cannon blast, sold for pounds 1.7m.

Suggested Topics
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebookA delicious collection of 50 meaty main courses
Life and Style
ebookNow available in paperback
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

ES Rentals

    iJobs Job Widget
    iJobs General

    Ashdown Group: Data Scientist - London - £50,000 + bonus

    £35000 - £50000 per annum + generous bonus: Ashdown Group: Business Analytics ...

    Ashdown Group: IT Project Coordinator (Software Development) - Kingston

    £45000 - £50000 per annum: Ashdown Group: IT Project Coordinator (Software Dev...

    Ashdown Group: Editor-in-chief - Financial Services - City, London

    £60000 - £70000 per annum + benefits : Ashdown Group: A highly successful, glo...

    Ashdown Group: Junior Application Support Analyst - Fluent German Speaker

    £25000 - £30000 per annum + benefits: Ashdown Group: A global leader operating...

    Day In a Page

    General Election 2015: Ed Miliband's unlikely journey from hapless geek to heart-throb

    Miliband's unlikely journey from hapless geek to heart-throb

    He was meant to be Labour's biggest handicap - but has become almost an asset
    General Election 2015: A guide to the smaller parties, from the the National Health Action Party to the Church of the Militant Elvis Party

    On the margins

    From Militant Elvis to Women's Equality: a guide to the underdogs standing in the election
    Amr Darrag: Ex-Muslim Brotherhood minister in exile still believes Egypt's military regime can be replaced with 'moderate' Islamic rule

    'This is the battle of young Egypt for the future of our country'

    Ex-Muslim Brotherhood minister Amr Darrag still believes the opposition can rid Egypt of its military regime and replace it with 'moderate' Islamic rule, he tells Robert Fisk
    Why patients must rely less on doctors: Improving our own health is the 'blockbuster drug of the century'

    Why patients must rely less on doctors

    Improving our own health is the 'blockbuster drug of the century'
    Sarah Lucas is the perfect artist to represent Britain at the Venice Biennale

    Flesh in Venice

    Sarah Lucas has filled the British pavilion at the Venice Biennale with slinky cats and casts of her female friends' private parts. It makes you proud to be a woman, says Karen Wright
    11 best anti-ageing day creams

    11 best anti-ageing day creams

    Slow down the ageing process with one of these high-performance, hardworking anti-agers
    Juventus 2 Real Madrid 1: Five things we learnt, including Iker Casillas is past it and Carlos Tevez remains effective

    Juventus vs Real Madrid

    Five things we learnt from the Italian's Champions League first leg win over the Spanish giants
    Ashes 2015: Test series looks a lost cause for England... whoever takes over as ECB director of cricket

    Ashes series looks a lost cause for England...

    Whoever takes over as ECB director of cricket, says Stephen Brenkley
    Fishing for votes with Nigel Farage: The Ukip leader shows how he can work an audience as he casts his line to the disaffected of Grimsby

    Fishing is on Nigel Farage's mind

    Ukip leader casts a line to the disaffected
    Who is bombing whom in the Middle East? It's amazing they don't all hit each other

    Who is bombing whom in the Middle East?

    Robert Fisk untangles the countries and factions
    China's influence on fashion: At the top of the game both creatively and commercially

    China's influence on fashion

    At the top of the game both creatively and commercially
    Lord O’Donnell: Former cabinet secretary on the election and life away from the levers of power

    The man known as GOD has a reputation for getting the job done

    Lord O'Donnell's three principles of rule
    Rainbow shades: It's all bright on the night

    Rainbow shades

    It's all bright on the night
    'It was first time I had ever tasted chocolate. I kept a piece, and when Amsterdam was liberated, I gave it to the first Allied soldier I saw'

    Bread from heaven

    Dutch survivors thank RAF for World War II drop that saved millions
    Britain will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power - Labour

    How 'the Axe' helped Labour

    UK will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power