An economist's view of what Labour can do

There seems to be little that annoys Gordon Brown and Tony Blair more than the suggestion that nothing can be accomplished by a New Labour government without increasing the total of public spending and borrowing. Nevertheless, this seems to be widely believed by British opinion formers, which is why a book published last Monday is very helpful. The book - What Labour Can Do by Professor Richard Layard of the London School of Economics (LSE) - outlines a programme of major and minor reforms that would cost only the modest amount of money which could comfortably be raised by the windfall tax on privatised utilities.

The title of Professor Layard's book is highly appropriate, since the author is the epitome of "can do" economists. While much of the profession is characterised by "can't do" types, Professor Layard never analyses a problem without suggesting how it can be alleviated by feasible policy changes. His list of practical accomplishments is already legion. The Centre for Labour Economics at the LSE was established by him as the leading research grouping on the subject in Europe, and it has now developed into the wider ranging Centre for Economic Performance. Professor Layard was also the prime mover behind the launch of the Employment Institute and Charter for Jobs in the 1980s, organisations which were in the wilderness for many years, but which eventually helped change the tide of opinion on the unemployment problem in this country. After that, Professor Layard decided that the biggest challenge faced by macro-economists lay in the transition economies, so he upped sticks and moved to Russia, to assist the process of reform. As all his colleagues will testify, perseverance is his middle name.

I first encountered Professor Layard's "can do" spirit in 1978, when I was working in Jim Callaghan's Policy Unit. We were looking for new ideas to fill the 1979 Labour Manifesto, and Professor Layard was suggesting that a job guarantee should be offered by the government to all those who had been unemployed continuously for more than 12 months. The unit felt that this would prove an important initiative, since it would raise the cost to the government of allowing long-term unemployment to rise, and would therefore force other policies across Whitehall to be adjusted to this requirement. Somewhat to our surprise, Jim Callaghan agreed, and the pledge made its first appearance in a Labour manifesto that year. It has been something of a hardy perennial since then in opposition documents, but sadly this has never persuaded the public, or the Conservative government, to support the idea. Perhaps 1997 will be the year, and if the New Labour plan eventually succeeds in eliminating long-term unemployment for those aged under 25, much of the credit should go to Professor Layard.

What Labour Can Do explains in some detail how this job guarantee can be implemented via a combination of employment subsidies and job creation projects. Also in the area of "welfare to work", Professor Layard argues for an expansion of in-work benefits, especially Family Credit, and for a minimum wage, set at a relatively low level of perhaps pounds 3.25 a week, designed to help roughly 5 per cent of the working population. He recognises, however, that these solutions will only work in the context of a concerted programme to improve skill levels for the least educated segment of our population. He points out that in the UK, 40 per cent of British youngsters never reach National Vocational Qualification Level 2, the equivalent of five good GCSEs. This means that we have twice the number of unqualified workers as Germany and France.

The answer is to spend more money on raising the standards of this part of the population, while saving money in higher education by transforming student grants into student loans. The Labour programme called "Target 2000" could then be implemented. This would ensure that every youngster under 18 who does not have Level 2 attainment must be studying for it either full-time or part-time, implying that an extra 350,000 teenagers would be exposed to additional training. At the other end of the age range, nursery education should be available for every three- and four-year-old but nursery vouchers would disappear.

Reading the key chapters on "welfare to work" and the "skills revolution", it becomes clear that there is much work to be done by a government which accepts that it has a social responsibility to help those who have dropped out of the education net prematurely. But by the same token, it cannot be acceptable for young people to receive benefit while refusing to take up offers of help from the State. Provided that the nature of this bargain is clearly explained to the rest of the population - that voluntary idleness at the public expense is never an option - such an initiative could generate wide electoral support.

The book also argues for modest stakeholder-type reforms to discourage the culture of short-termism and hostile takeovers which permeates British industry. These would include enhanced compensation for workers laid off after a merger, much tougher competition policy (eg making price fixing illegal), the introduction of a Council of Institutional Investors to undertake efficiency audits of underperforming firms, and the like. But there would be no wholesale changes in company law, or in the duties of directors, which some supporters of the stakeholder system would like to see adopted.

On macro-economic policy, Professor Layard argues under the heading of "no more boom and bust" for a series of measures to enhance stability in the monetary and fiscal field, including independence for the Bank of England, followed immediately by first- wave membership of EMU. There would be no attempt to reduce the share of public spending or tax in GDP, since Professor Layard views this as irrelevant for growth, but there would be a gradual privatisation of the pension system.

What are the common threads that lie behind these ideas? The first is that plenty can be done to change and improve the workings of the economy without resorting to tax and spend. The second is that we still have something to learn from the way that things are done in the rest of Europe.

This latter notion is not fashionable, especially following the recent surge in unemployment in Germany. There are serious problems with the structure of the labour market on the Continent and several of our neighbours are reluctantly moving in the direction of the Anglo-Saxon model in this area. But, as this column pointed out a few weeks ago, we should not get too mesmerised by short-term cyclical developments, since long-term comparisons between Europe, America and the UK on growth, productivity and inflation remain unflattering to our system. On this, Will Hutton makes a sensible point - we are not forced to copy all the mistakes which the Germans and French have made, but there are many elements of their system which would enhance our own.

Also we should recognise that not everything done in America need be slavishly copied in the rest of the world. Ten years ago, copying America would have been considered insane. Professor Layard suggests - controversially - that it still is.

`What Labour Can Do' by Professor Richard Layard, published by Warner Books at pounds 6.99

Sport
The Pipes and Drums of The Scottish Regiments perform during the Opening Ceremony for the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games at Celtic Park on July 23, 2014 in Glasgow, Scotland.
Commonwealth gamesThe actor encouraged the one billion viewers of the event to donate to the children's charity
Sport
Members of the Scotland deleagtion walk past during the opening ceremony of the 2014 Commonwealth Games at Celtic Park in Glasgow on July 23, 2014.
Voices
voicesGood for Lana Del Rey for helping kill that myth, writes Grace Dent
Sport
Shinji Kagawa and Reece James celebrate after the latter scores in Manchester United's 7-0 victory over LA Galaxy
football
PROMOTED VIDEO
Arts and Entertainment
The Tour de France peloton rides over a bridge on the Grinton Moor, Yorkshire, earlier this month
film
Life and Style
fashion Designs are part of feminist art project by a British student
News
Very tasty: Vladimir Putin dining alone, perhaps sensibly
news
Life and Style
Listen here: Apple EarPods offer an alternative
techAre custom, 3D printed earbuds the solution?
Arts and Entertainment
Top guns: Cole advised the makers of Second World War film Fury, starring Brad Pitt
filmLt-Col Steven Cole is the man Hollywood calls when it wants to borrow a tank or check a uniform
News
The University of California study monitored the reaction of 36 dogs
sciencePets' range of emotions revealed
News
Snoop Dogg pictured at The Hollywood Reporter Nominees' Night in February, 2013
people... says Snoop Dogg
News
ebookA unique anthology of reporting and analysis of a crucial period of history
Arts and Entertainment
A scene from Shakespeare in Love at the Noel Coward Theatre
theatreReview: Shakespeare in Love has moments of sheer stage poetry mixed with effervescent fun
News
Joining forces: young British men feature in an Isis video in which they urge Islamists in the West to join them in Iraq and Syria
newsWill the young Britons fighting in Syria be allowed to return home and resume their lives?
Arts and Entertainment
The nomination of 'The Wake' by Paul Kingsnorth has caused a stir
books
News
i100
Life and Style
food + drinkZebra meat is exotic and lean - but does it taste good?
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs Money & Business

PMO Analyst - London - Banking - £350 - £400

£350 - £400 per day: Orgtel: PMO Analyst - Banking - London - £350 -£400 per d...

Cost Reporting-MI Packs-Edinburgh-Bank-£350/day

£300 - £350 per day + competitive: Orgtel: Cost Reporting Manager - MI Packs -...

Insight Analyst – Permanent – Up to £40k – North London

£35000 - £40000 Per Annum plus 23 days holiday and pension scheme: Clearwater ...

Test Lead - London - Investment Banking

£475 - £525 per day: Orgtel: Test Lead, London, Investment Banking, Technical ...

Day In a Page

Screwing your way to the top? Good for Lana Del Rey for helping kill that myth

Screwing your way to the top?

Good for Lana Del Rey for helping kill that myth, says Grace Dent
Will the young Britons fighting in Syria be allowed to return home and resume their lives?

Will Britons fighting in Syria be able to resume their lives?

Tony Blair's Terrorism Act 2006 has made it an offence to take part in military action abroad with a "political, ideological, religious or racial motive"
Beyoncé poses as Rosie the Riveter, the wartime poster girl who became a feminist pin-up

Beyoncé poses as Rosie the Riveter

The wartime poster girl became the ultimate American symbol of female empowerment
The quest to find the perfect pair of earphones: Are custom, 3D printed earbuds the solution?

The quest to find the perfect pair of earphones

Earphones don't fit properly, offer mediocre audio quality and can even be painful. So the quest to design the perfect pair is music to Seth Stevenson's ears
US Army's shooting star: Lt-Col Steven Cole is the man Hollywood calls when it wants to borrow a tank or check a military uniform

Meet the US Army's shooting star

Lt-Col Steven Cole is the man Hollywood calls when it wants to borrow a tank or check a military uniform
Climate change threatens to make the antarctic fur seal extinct

Take a good look while you can

How climate change could wipe out this seal
Should emergency hospital weddings be made easier for the terminally ill?

Farewell, my lovely

Should emergency hospital weddings be made easier?
Man Booker Prize 2014 longlist: Crowdfunded novel nominated for first time

Crowdfunded novel nominated for Booker Prize

Paul Kingsnorth's 'The Wake' is in contention for the prestigious award
Vladimir Putin employs a full-time food taster to ensure his meals aren't poisoned

Vladimir Putin employs a full-time food taster

John Walsh salutes those brave souls who have, throughout history, put their knives on the line
Tour de France effect brings Hollywood blockbusters to Yorkshire

Tour de France effect brings Hollywood blockbusters to Yorkshire

A $25m thriller starring Sam Worthington to be made in God's Own Country
Will The Minerva Project - the first 'elite' American university to be launched in a century - change the face of higher learning?

Will The Minerva Project change the face of higher learning?

The university has no lecture halls, no debating societies, no sports teams and no fraternities. Instead, the 33 students who have made the cut at Minerva, will travel the world and change the face of higher learning
The 10 best pedicure products

Feet treat: 10 best pedicure products

Bags packed and all prepped for holidays, but feet in a state? Get them flip-flop-ready with our pick of the items for a DIY treatment
Commonwealth Games 2014: Great Scots! Planes and pipers welcome in Glasgow's Games

Commonwealth Games 2014

Great Scots! Planes and pipers welcome in Glasgow's Games
Jack Pitt-Brooke: Manchester City and Patrick Vieira make the right stand on racism

Jack Pitt-Brooke

Manchester City and Patrick Vieira make the right stand on racism
How Terry Newton tragedy made iron men seek help to tackle their psychological demons

How Newton tragedy made iron men seek help to tackle their psychological demons

Over a hundred rugby league players have contacted clinic to deal with mental challenges of game