Jim O'Neill: So what do the Brics countries want from their new development bank?

Economic View: Putting size to one side, what else do they have in common? Not that much

At their fifth annual summit in April, the leaders of the Brics nations said they would build their own development bank. If it happens, this club of leading emerging economies – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa – will be taking quite a step. Up to now their meetings have produced bold statements, but little in the way of tangible achievement.

Reports of their meeting in Durban, South Africa, were somewhat thin on details: there was no announcement about where the new bank would have its headquarters or how the institution would be funded.

The vagueness suggests the new bank's true purpose hasn't been worked out. In a way, that's understandable, because the Brics grouping is unusual. Even so, for this venture to succeed, the new bank will need a clear rationale.

One of the main reasons it has been difficult for them to co-operate is simply that they aren't much alike. Four of the five (the Bric part of the group) are the world's largest emerging economies. But even this isn't much of a similarity: China is bigger than all the others put together. Its growth in effect creates a new India every couple of years, or a new South Africa every few months.

Putting size to one side, what else do they have in common? Not that much. Brazil – whose president Dilma Rousseff addressed the summit – India and South Africa are democracies; China and Russia aren't. China and India are major commodity importers; Brazil, Russia and South Africa are major commodity exporters. They also have very different levels of income and wealth. Russia's annual per capita income, adjusted for purchasing-power parity, is about $24,000; on the same basis, Brazil, China and South Africa have incomes of between $9,000 and $12,000; India is much poorer, at about $4,000.

I'm constantly reading that one country or another doesn't belong in the Brics group. Having come up with the idea in the first place, I don't know whether to be amused or annoyed. The fact is, it's easy to make a case for excluding each one.

As time goes by, I see China as the real odd man out – not just because of its size but also because, despite the recent slowdown, it's the only one that so far this decade has met my expectations for growth.

In economic terms, South Africa really doesn't belong either – but the Brics are a political grouping, not just an economic one. The membership requirement, you might say, is a compelling combination of economic potential and geopolitical weight. In any event, South Africa's a member, and debating whether it deserves to be is pointless.

What's well worth debating, though, is whether the decision to set up a Brics bank gives South Africa's leaders a new chance to explain its presence and make it count.

These sharply contrasting cases, China and South Africa, are the ones that interest me most when it comes to planning the new institution.

I ask myself why China is even interested, remembering that it already has the China Development Bank, which funds overseas investments judged by Beijing to be in China's economic or geopolitical interests. Here's my theory: China's leaders may see a Brics bank as a low-risk rehearsal for the role they are fated to play, in due course, at the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, within the Group of 20 and maybe even at the United Nations.

What's South Africa's purpose? Some of its policy makers tell me they aspire to act as go-between for the Bric countries on one side and Africa – or least sub-Saharan Africa – on the other. That's fine, but they should be a bit more specific.

South Africa has a well-developed financial sector, and the expertise and experience that go with it. Why not use this strength to fashion a role in drawing project-development money to the many needy countries to their north?

If they fail to do this, you can bet that other rapidly growing African countries, such as Nigeria (which before very long will have a bigger economy than South Africa), will decide that the Brics bank does little for them, and that South Africa can't serve as their representative.

So much for the motives of China and South Africa. For the group as a whole, the recent turmoil in Brazil, Turkey and other emerging economies suggests – or ought to – what the larger missing rationale should be.

The reasons for the protests in so many emerging economies are complex, of course, and differ from case to case, but I see two common factors. One: fast-growing, emerging economies have rapidly expanding middle classes. These people have gained from economic growth and are anxious to have more of the same. Two: this new middle class sees governments wasting public money on pet projects. They want investment in things that will make them proud and more prosperous, and that will keep up the attack on poverty.

How should governments respond? For many years at Goldman Sachs, I followed scores calculated by our research department for each of the emerging economies: a system of 18 variables that aimed to measure sustainable growth.

For many large, emerging economies, including all the Bric countries and the "next 11" (apart from South Korea), three areas stood out as vital for success: first, governance – meaning better government as opposed to more; second, education, including at the most basic levels; third, access to modern technology.

Governments which raise all three of these scores give their countries the best chance of escaping once and for all from the so-called middle-income trap.

So I have a suggestion for the new bank, once it's up and running: set country-by-country targets for improving performance on each of these three measures over agreed periods. Make these scores the organising principle, and use them to guide capital allocation.

If a Brics development bank adopted a rationale such as this, used it to focus minds and then followed through with its decisions, it could do its members, and others as well, a power of good.

Jim O'Neill, former chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management, is a Bloomberg View columnist

Flocking round: Beyoncé, Madame Tussauds' latest waxwork, looking fierce in the park
travelIn a digital age when we have more access than ever to the stars, why are waxworks still pulling in crowds?
Arts and Entertainment
Arts and Entertainment
Judi Dench appeared at the Hay Festival to perform excerpts from Shakespearean plays
tvJudi Dench and Hugh Bonneville join Benedict Cumberbatch in BBC Shakespeare adaptations
Is this how Mario Balotelli will cruise into Liverpool?
Ronahi Serhat, a PKK fighter, in the Qandil Mountains in Iraqi Kurdistan
ebooksAn evocation of the conflict through the eyes of those who lived through it
Arts and Entertainment
Poet’s corner: Philip Larkin at the venetian window of his home in 1958
booksOr caring, playful man who lived for others? A new book has the answer
Arts and Entertainment
Exhibition at the Centre Pompidou in Metz - 23 May 2012
Matthew McConaughey and his son Levi at the game between the Boston Red Sox and the Houston Astros at Fenway Park on August 17, 2014 in Boston, Massachusetts.
advertisingOscar-winner’s Lincoln deal is latest in a lucrative ad production line
Life and Style
Pick of the bunch: Sudi Pigott puts together roasted tomatoes with peppers, aubergines and Labneh cheese for a tomato-inspired vegetarian main dish
food + drink
Arts and Entertainment
Alfred Molina, left, and John Lithgow in a scene from 'Love Is Strange'
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs Money & Business

Junior Quant Analyst - C++, Boost, Data Mining

£25000 - £35000 per annum: Harrington Starr: Junior Quant Analyst - C++, Boost...

Service Desk Analyst- (Desktop Support, Help desk)

£25000 - £35000 per annum: Harrington Starr: Service Desk Analyst- (Desktop Su...

Junior Quant Analyst (Machine Learning, SQL, Brokerage)

£30000 - £50000 per annum: Harrington Starr: Junior Quant Analyst (Machine Lea...

UNIX Application Support Analyst- Support, UNIX, London

£45000 - £55000 per annum: Harrington Starr: UNIX Application Support Analyst-...

Day In a Page

Air strikes? Talk of God? Obama is following the jihadists’ script

Air strikes? Talk of God? Obama is following the jihadists’ script

The President came the nearest he has come yet to rivalling George W Bush’s gormless reaction to 9/11 , says Robert Fisk
Ebola outbreak: Billy Graham’s son declares righteous war on the virus

Billy Graham’s son declares righteous war on Ebola

A Christian charity’s efforts to save missionaries trapped in Africa by the crisis have been justifiably praised. But doubts remain about its evangelical motives
Jeremy Clarkson 'does not see a problem' with his racist language on Top Gear, says BBC

Not even Jeremy Clarkson is bigger than the BBC, says TV boss

Corporation’s head of television confirms ‘Top Gear’ host was warned about racist language
Nick Clegg the movie: Channel 4 to air Coalition drama showing Lib Dem leader's rise

Nick Clegg the movie

Channel 4 to air Coalition drama showing Lib Dem leader's rise
Philip Larkin: Misogynist, racist, miserable? Or caring, playful man who lived for others?

Philip Larkin: What will survive of him?

Larkin's reputation has taken a knocking. But a new book by James Booth argues that the poet was affectionate, witty, entertaining and kind, as hitherto unseen letters, sketches and 'selfies' reveal
Madame Tussauds has shown off its Beyoncé waxwork in Regent's Park - but why is the tourist attraction still pulling in the crowds?

Waxing lyrical

Madame Tussauds has shown off its Beyoncé waxwork in Regent's Park - but why is the tourist attraction still pulling in the crowds?
Texas forensic astronomer finally pinpoints the exact birth of impressionism

Revealed (to the minute)

The precise time when impressionism was born
From slow-roasted to sugar-cured: how to make the most of the British tomato season

Make the most of British tomatoes

The British crop is at its tastiest and most abundant. Sudi Pigott shares her favourite recipes
10 best men's skincare products

Face it: 10 best men's skincare products

Oscar Quine cleanses, tones and moisturises to find skin-savers blokes will be proud to display on the bathroom shelf
Malky Mackay allegations: Malky Mackay, Iain Moody and another grim day for English football

Mackay, Moody and another grim day for English football

The latest shocking claims do nothing to dispel the image that some in the game on these shores exist in a time warp, laments Sam Wallace
La Liga analysis: Will Barcelona's hopes go out of the window?

Will Barcelona's hopes go out of the window?

Pete Jenson starts his preview of the Spanish season, which begins on Saturday, by explaining how Fifa’s transfer ban will affect the Catalans
Middle East crisis: We know all too much about the cruelty of Isis – but all too little about who they are

We know all too much about the cruelty of Isis – but all too little about who they are

Now Obama has seen the next US reporter to be threatened with beheading, will he blink, asks Robert Fisk
Neanderthals lived alongside humans for centuries, latest study shows

Final resting place of our Neanderthal neighbours revealed

Bones dated to 40,000 years ago show species may have died out in Belgium species co-existed
Scottish independence: The new Scots who hold fate of the UK in their hands

The new Scots who hold fate of the UK in their hands

Scotland’s immigrants are as passionate about the future of their adopted nation as anyone else
Britain's ugliest buildings: Which monstrosities should be nominated for the Dead Prize?

Blight club: Britain's ugliest buildings

Following the architect Cameron Sinclair's introduction of the Dead Prize, an award for ugly buildings, John Rentoul reflects on some of the biggest blots on the UK landscape