The art of cashing in

THE ECONOMY of Salzburg, like that of New York City, is directly linked to the arts. Similarly, the marketing and promotion efforts of large global corporations rest in large part on their participation in and funding of the arts.

What could be more fitting, therefore, in this era of drastic international cutbacks in arts funding, than to gather in the small 18th-century castle of Schloss Leopoldskron, former home of Count Laktanz, one of the first patrons of Mozart, and of Max Reinhardt, the celebrated theatre director who co-founded the Salzburg Festival, to discuss the economics of the arts.

The marketing of Mozart in concert with the Salzburg music festival represents almost dollars 30m ( pounds 20m) to this Austrian city.

The New York metropolitan area has also found that art exists not just for art's sake. A study commissioned by the city found that in 1992 the arts and related cultural events generated nearly dollars 10bn in economic activity in the region and accounted for more than 100,000 jobs. New York gained dollars 3.5bn in arts-generated wages, salaries and royalties.

As the New York Times observed: 'The arts are clearly a major economic sector . . . their health should be treated with care.'

The facts are otherwise, however, as London's orchestras can attest in their fight for funds to survive. Public funding for the arts in the US, Europe and Asia has been declining for almost a decade, and arts organisations everywhere are contracting, merging and disappearing. This is a time of 'Solomon's choices', particularly in eastern and central Europe and the former Soviet Union. Even such national treasures as the Bolshoi Ballet and the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg are struggling. There has been a 'fire sale' of artistic crown jewels, as individuals and institutions chase scarce foreign exchange. State officials, trying to negotiate standby agreements with the International Monetary Fund, have little time for the arts.

Enter the corporation. Marilyn Laurie, senior vice- president and director of public relations for AT&T in addition to heading its foundation, reports that only a few artists will strike it rich. The private sector can never replace public-sector funding for the arts or even 'pick up the slack' when public funds shrink.

Put bluntly, corporations are interested first and foremost in enhancing their images and influence. If this also meets society's needs, that is well and good. In Ms Laurie's words: 'AT&T seeks an intersection between its corporate interests and society's needs.' It does so by forging partnerships with arts organisations that fit the bill - by outright cash grants and contributions, sponsorship of big events, and 'in-kind' donations of products and time. It dispenses approximately dollars 50m annually for events as diverse as the MacNeil-Lehrer news hour on US public television and a large David Hockney exhibition in London and Los Angeles. This is big money, but it is budget-driven - based on profits and therefore no replacement for public-sector funding.

Mobil Corporation has a similar story to tell. Its corporate philanthropy budget is dollars 32m annually, of which art and culture account for 46 per cent. The rest goes to education, healthcare and other social causes. Mary Springer, a senior Mobil official, points to a big exhibition of Indonesia's art treasures in Washington to illustrate what motivates her company's giving. The sponsorship and exhibit were initiated by a request from Indonesia's foreign minister. Mobil has extensive oil exploration interests in Indonesia and was interested in gaining access to as many influential Indonesians as possible. The exhibit accomplished this as well as providing cultural and educational benefits to thousands of people.

US corporations spent dollars 720m on philanthropic activities in 1992, up sharply from dollars 190m in 1986. However, the rate of growth is slowing dramatically during a period when public funds are also drying up. Recently, Europe and Asia have moved closer to the US model, but corporate giving is still very small in Europe and Asia. It is not likely to rise dramatically unless there are significant changes in tax laws. Given the economic activity generated by the arts, such changes seem long overdue.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
ebookA unique anthology of reporting and analysis of a crucial period of history
Richard Blair is concerned the trenches are falling into disrepair
newsGeorge Orwell's son wants to save war site that inspired book
Life and Style
Audrey Hepburn with Hubert De Givenchy, whose well-cut black tuxedo is a 'timeless look'
fashionIt may be a paradox, but the industry loves it
Arts and Entertainment
The pair in their heyday in 1967
Life and Style
fashionFrom bathing dresses in the twenties to modern bikinis
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs Money & Business

Guru Careers: Software Developer / C# Developer

£40-50K: Guru Careers: We are seeking an experienced Software / C# Developer w...

Neil Pavier: Management Accountant

£45,000 - £55,000: Neil Pavier: Are you looking for your next opportunity for ...

Sheridan Maine: Commercial Accountant

£45,000 - £55,000: Sheridan Maine: Are you a newly qualified ACA/ACCA/ACMA qua...

Laura Norton: Project Accountant

£50,000 - £60,000: Laura Norton: Are you looking for an opportunity within a w...

Day In a Page

Abuse - and the hell that came afterwards

Abuse - and the hell that follows

James Rhodes on the extraordinary legal battle to publish his memoir
Why we need a 'tranquility map' of England, according to campaigners

It's oh so quiet!

The case for a 'tranquility map' of England
'Timeless fashion': It may be a paradox, but the industry loves it

'Timeless fashion'

It may be a paradox, but the industry loves it
If the West needs a bridge to the 'moderates' inside Isis, maybe we could have done with Osama bin Laden staying alive after all

Could have done with Osama bin Laden staying alive?

Robert Fisk on the Fountainheads of World Evil in 2011 - and 2015
New exhibition celebrates the evolution of swimwear

Evolution of swimwear

From bathing dresses in the twenties to modern bikinis
Sun, sex and an anthropological study: One British academic's summer of hell in Magaluf

Sun, sex and an anthropological study

One academic’s summer of hell in Magaluf
From Shakespeare to Rising Damp... to Vicious

Frances de la Tour's 50-year triumph

'Rising Damp' brought De la Tour such recognition that she could be forgiven if she'd never been able to move on. But at 70, she continues to flourish - and to beguile
'That Whitsun, I was late getting away...'

Ian McMillan on the Whitsun Weddings

This weekend is Whitsun, and while the festival may no longer resonate, Larkin's best-loved poem, lives on - along with the train journey at the heart of it
Kathryn Williams explores the works and influences of Sylvia Plath in a new light

Songs from the bell jar

Kathryn Williams explores the works and influences of Sylvia Plath
How one man's day in high heels showed him that Cannes must change its 'no flats' policy

One man's day in high heels

...showed him that Cannes must change its 'flats' policy
Is a quiet crusade to reform executive pay bearing fruit?

Is a quiet crusade to reform executive pay bearing fruit?

Dominic Rossi of Fidelity says his pressure on business to control rewards is working. But why aren’t other fund managers helping?
The King David Hotel gives precious work to Palestinians - unless peace talks are on

King David Hotel: Palestinians not included

The King David is special to Jerusalem. Nick Kochan checked in and discovered it has some special arrangements, too
More people moving from Australia to New Zealand than in the other direction for first time in 24 years

End of the Aussie brain drain

More people moving from Australia to New Zealand than in the other direction for first time in 24 years
Meditation is touted as a cure for mental instability but can it actually be bad for you?

Can meditation be bad for you?

Researching a mass murder, Dr Miguel Farias discovered that, far from bringing inner peace, meditation can leave devotees in pieces
Eurovision 2015: Australians will be cheering on their first-ever entrant this Saturday

Australia's first-ever Eurovision entrant

Australia, a nation of kitsch-worshippers, has always loved the Eurovision Song Contest. Maggie Alderson says it'll fit in fine