Kyoto Summit: Developed nations look to a free market in pollution

The final deal reached in Kyoto this week will open the way for a free market in trading in pollution rights between nations. Nicholas Schoon, Environment Correspondent, explains an extraordinary idea.

You are a country which has signed up to a legal treaty strictly limiting the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions you can produce each year. And you have a real problem - you know you are heading to break that limit in the next few years.

Perhaps one of your nuclear power stations has broken down, so you need to burn more greenhouse-gas producing coal to make up for the missing electricity. Or economic growth is expanding your use of fossil fuels faster than you expected.

So what do you do? You buy a load of extra permits to pollute on the open, international market at a few dollars per tonne of greenhouse gas. Then, when you do go over your limit, you are not breaking international law - for you have the permits to cover the excess.

The cost of purchasing them from overseas is cheaper than cost of cutting your rising emissions at home. The United States has insisted this kind of trading regime must feature in the Kyoto climate treaty for developed countries. It now seems certain to get its way, despite other nations and green groups having serious doubts. Economic theory says that free- market trading in permits guarantees to minimise the total costs of stabilising or reducing the global level of pollution.

In real life, the largest trial to date has taken place within the US through the 1990s. It applied to the acid rain gas sulphur dioxide produced mainly by power stations, and it seems to have worked fairly well.

Here is how it could work if, say, the Kyoto treaty set a target for developed countries to cut annual greenhouse gas emissions to 95 per cent of their 1990 level by 2000 - a fairly likely final outcome. Each country would be given permits sufficient to cover 95 per cent of the quantity of pollution it produced in 1990, to be used in the year 2010.

Those nations confident of being able to cut emissions by more than 5 per cent easily and cheaply would reckon to have surplus permits for that year. So they would offer them for sale, either on the open market or in private sale agreements with other governments, in 2010 or beforehand. Nations which found it too expensive or difficult to meet the target would want to buy them. But overall, emissions from the developed world would be cut by 5 per cent.

It gets more complicated. The permits would, in fact, cover several years of emissions rather than just one - and could be banked up for the future. Not only would there be a market in permits, but a futures or options market too - in which the players would be gambling on the future price of permits. In Kyoto this week, the Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott, suggested the City of London get involved. But the EU and the green lobby worry about potential loopholes.

Russia and the eastern bloc have had enormous reductions in greenhouse gas emissions since 1990, thanks to economic decline. So if permits were allocated on a 1990 basis, that would give them a big surplus. The natural client to sell them to would be the US, the world's biggest climate polluter, allowing American greenhouse gas emissions to keep rising.

Furthermore, the trading regime would collapse if there was not strict monitoring and enforcement. Nations which polluted above their quota without having purchased the necessary permits ought to be severely penalised. But a watertight regime has not been negotiated in Kyoto.

The EU's view is that trading permits should only play a small part in lowering greenhouse gas emissions; what countries do inside their own borders must deliver the bulk.

Dr Daniel Dudak, of the US Environmental Defence Fund, is a leading advocate of pollution trading and guesses the price will settle down at around pounds 2 for each tonne of carbon dioxide traded. "The permits are, in effect, a sovereign promise by a Government to perform - they're only as good as that promise. I have a lot of faith in the entrepreneurship that will come with trading."

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA year of political gossip, levity and intrigue from the sharpest pen in Westminster
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Tradewind Recruitment: Geography Teacher

£90 - £140 per day: Tradewind Recruitment: On behalf of a successful academy i...

Investigo: Finance Business Partner

£45000 - £50000 per annum: Investigo: My client, a global leader in providing ...

Austen Lloyd: Commercial Property Solicitor - West London

Excellent Salary: Austen Lloyd: WEST LONDON - An excellent new opportunity wit...

Recruitment Genius: Florist Shop Manager

£8 - £10 per hour: Recruitment Genius: A Florist Shop Manager is required to m...

Day In a Page

Syria crisis: Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more refugees as one young mother tells of torture by Assad regime

Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more Syrian refugees

One young mother tells of torture by Assad regime
The enemy within: People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back – with promising results

The enemy within

People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back
'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

Survivors of the Nazi concentration camp remember its horror, 70 years on
Autumn/winter menswear 2015: The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore

Autumn/winter menswear 2015

The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore
'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

Army general planning to come out
Iraq invasion 2003: The bloody warnings six wise men gave to Tony Blair as he prepared to launch poorly planned campaign

What the six wise men told Tony Blair

Months before the invasion of Iraq in 2003, experts sought to warn the PM about his plans. Here, four of them recall that day
25 years of The Independent on Sunday: The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century

25 years of The Independent on Sunday

The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century
Homeless Veterans appeal: 'Really caring is a dangerous emotion in this kind of work'

Homeless Veterans appeal

As head of The Soldiers' Charity, Martin Rutledge has to temper compassion with realism. He tells Chris Green how his Army career prepared him
Wu-Tang Clan and The Sexual Objects offer fans a chance to own the only copies of their latest albums

Smash hit go under the hammer

It's nice to pick up a new record once in a while, but the purchasers of two latest releases can go a step further - by buying the only copy
Geeks who rocked the world: Documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry

The geeks who rocked the world

A new documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry
Belle & Sebastian interview: Stuart Murdoch reveals how the band is taking a new direction

Belle & Sebastian is taking a new direction

Twenty years ago, Belle & Sebastian was a fey indie band from Glasgow. It still is – except today, as prime mover Stuart Murdoch admits, it has a global cult following, from Hollywood to South Korea
America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

These days in the US things are pretty much stuck where they are, both in politics and society at large, says Rupert Cornwell
A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

A veteran of the Fifties campaigns is inspiring a new generation of activists
Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

A C Benson called him 'a horrid little fellow', George Orwell would have shot him, but what a giant he seems now, says DJ Taylor
Growing mussels: Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project

Growing mussels

Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project