Professor John Edwards

Geneticist whose work on chromosome defects included the identification of Edwards syndrome


John Hilton Edwards, geneticist: born London 26 March 1928; Ship's Surgeon, Falkland Islands Dependency Survey 1952-53; Lecturer, Department of Social Medicine, Birmingham University 1956-58, 1961-65, Senior Lecturer 1965-66, Reader in Human Genetics 1966-69, Professor of Human Genetics 1969-79; Member, MRC Unit on Population Genetics, Oxford 1958-60; Geneticist, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 1960-61; Visiting Professor of Paediatrics, Cornell University and Senior Investigator, New York Blood Center 1967-68; FRS 1979; Professor of Human Genetics, Oxford University 1979-95 (Emeritus); Professorial Fellow, Ke ble College, Oxford 1979-95; married 1953 Felicity Toussaint (two sons, two daughters); died Oxford 11 October 2007.

Edwards syndrome is, after Down's syndrome, the most common disease caused by having an extra chromosome. Its discovery was one of many advances made by John Edwards, Emeritus Professor of Genetics at Oxford University.

Others included suggesting that placental sampling, introduced to detect Rhesus-negative babies, should also be used to detect chromosome abnormalities such as Down's syndrome. This is now a routine procedure. He contributed to our knowledge of the inherited form of hydrocephalus, and also reported a series of 20 cases of a rare genetic disease, Cornelia de Lange syndrome. He developed a widely-used research tool called the "Oxford grid" to map and compare gene sequences in different animal species, including humans.

Edwards was the son of a London surgeon. He didn't learn to read until he was nine, in part because he was rarely read to, which he later said gave him time to think. From Uppingham School, he went to Trinity Hall, Cambridge to study medicine, doing his clinical training at the Middlesex Hospital in London. While at the Middlesex he married Felicity Toussaint, a fellow medical student from Oxford.

He then did his National Service in the Artists' Rifles, part of the territorial SAS, where he learned to parachute. He described parachuting from a balloon as the most frightening experience of his life. He followed this with nine months as ship's doctor – doubling as dentist – on a scientific research ship, the John Biscoe, voyaging round the South Atlantic and Antarctic. On his return he was found to have tuberculosis at the top of one lung, for which he was prescribed bed-rest. He passed the time by teaching himself statistical methodology.

After his recovery, he spent three years in junior medical jobs in general medicine, neurology, pathology and psychiatry, at hospitals in London and Hampshire. In 1956 he joined Birmingham University, where he spent 27 years. He started as Lecturer in the Department of Social Medicine in the Institute of Child Health, and rose to be Professor of Human Genetics, heading a new department of clinical genetics. It was during his first year there, when placental sampling had been introduced nationally, that he suggested via The Lancet that it could be used to detect genetic abnormalities.

During his time at Birmingham, he spent 1958-60 at the Population Genetics Unit of Oxford University, returning to Birmingham regularly, where he recognised the defects caused by having an extra chromosome 18. He reported these in The Lancet and the syndrome was later named after him.

He spent a sabbatical (1960-61) at the Philadelphia Children's Hospital, and 1966-67 at the New York Blood Center and Cornell Medical Center. During his time at Philadelphia he attended a now-famous genetics course at Bar Harbor in Maine, organised and presented by Professor Victor McKusick of Baltimore. They became friends, and in later years Edwards taught in the course. In 1979, his last year at Birmingham, he was elected to fellowship of the Royal Society.

As Professor of Genetics at Oxford from 1979, his main work was in the development of the "Oxford grid", a chart for mapping and comparing gene sequences in different species of animals; he found comparable linked strings of genes in a range of animals, a concept called "syngeny". In Sydney, where Edwards did collaborative work, there is an "Oxgrid project".

He made many other contributions: he played a major role in human gene-mapping workshops held between 1973 and 1991; directed the West Midlands Human Cytogenetics Laboratory for four years; and was Visiting Professor at Newfoundland University. He was a genetics consultant to the World Health Organisation from 1972, and a consultant genetics investigator in Iceland, which is extensively studied for its compact gene pool. This meant several visits to Iceland, on one occasion overlapping with the Fischer-Spassky chess matches and meeting Boris Spassky. His interests in restricted gene pools also extended to Labrador, Newfoundland, pigs in Australia and sheep in New Zealand.

At the Social Medicine Department at Birmingham, John Edwards had been mentored by Lancelot Hogben, author of Mathematics for the Million, one of the most successful science books ever written. John Edwards's brother Anthony had a parallel career as a statistical geneticist at Cambridge, originally working under the statistician R.A. Fisher. The two brothers were nicknamed "Hogben's Edwards" and "Fisher's Edwards".

Edwards, slender and boffin-like, was loved and respected for his support for his junior workers, his good nature and his altruism. Sir Walter Bodmer, who preceded him as professor at Oxford, said, "He had a fine feel for the subject of human genetics, including a historical perspective, and always an original way of looking at problems and presenting them." Sir David Weatherall, Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford, said Edwards was "one of the nicest and cleverest of our field". And Professor Victor McKusick, of Johns Hopkins, said, "John was of quick wit in both senses of the word. His humour was rarely if ever malicious or unkind. Among his colleagues his absentmindedness was legendary, and it enhanced rather than detracted from the respect in which his colleagues held him."

Edwards read widely, with a particular fondness for Martin Gardner, Edward Gibbon and G.K. Chesterton. He had a recreational interest in mathematics, and went walking, skiing and gliding. He was energetic, happily chopping trees into logs. When his children were young, he would take them to the cinema and work out mathematical formulae on the backs of punch-cards in the near-darkness. He did his own computer programming throughout his career.

In his retirement he took an interest in leprosy and collaborated with the head of the Indian medical research council. He was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2000 but remained active until July last year.

Caroline Richmond

News
news

Emergency call 'started off dumb, but got pretty serious'

News
people

Britain First criticised for using actress's memory to draw attention to their 'hate-filled home page'

Arts and Entertainment
JK Rowling is releasing a new Harry Potter story about Dolores Umbridge
arts + entsJK Rowling to publish new story set in wizard's world for Halloween
News
Russell Brand was in typically combative form during his promotional interview with Newsnight's Evan Davis
people

Thought you'd seen it all after the Jeremy Paxman interview?

PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
News
ebooksAn unforgettable anthology of contemporary reportage
Arts and Entertainment
On The Apprentice, “serious” left the room many moons ago and yet still we watch
tv

Greatest mystery about the hit BBC1 show is how it continues to be made at all, writes Grace Dent

News
Queen Elizabeth II sends the first royal tweet under her own name to declare the opening of the new Information Age Galleries at the Science Museum, South Kensington, London
people
Voices
Funds raised from the sale of poppies help the members of the armed forces with financial difficulties
voicesLindsey German: The best way of protecting soldiers is to stop sending them into conflicts
Arts and Entertainment
A scene from David Ayer's 'Fury'
film

"History is violent," says the US Army tank commander Don "Wardaddy" Collier

News
The Edge and his wife, Morleigh Steinberg, at the Academy Awards in 2014
peopleGuitarist faces protests over plan to build mansions in Malibu
News
news
News
peopleFox presenter gives her less than favourable view of women in politics
News
George Clooney and Amal Alamuddin married in Venice yesterday
peopleAmal and George Clooney 'planning third celebration in England'
Arts and Entertainment
Keira Knightley at the premiere of Laggie at Toronto Film Festival 2014
theatreActress 'to make Broadway debut'
Property
One bedroom terraced house for sale, Richmond Avenue, Islington, London N1. On with Winkworths for £275,000.
property
Sport
Erik Lamela celebrates his goal
football

Argentinian scored 'rabona' wonder goal for Tottenham in Europa League – see it here

Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Business Focused Business Analyst - Finance and Procurement System Implementation

£350 Per Day: Clearwater People Solutions Ltd: Our client based in Reading are...

Commercial Property Solicitor - Bristol

Highly Attractive Package: Austen Lloyd: A VERY HIGH QUALITY FIRM - A high q...

Head of ad sales international - Broadcast

competitive + bonus + benefits: Sauce Recruitment: Are you the king or Queen o...

Note Taker - Scribe

£10 per hour: Randstad Education Chelmsford: Are you an experienced note taker...

Day In a Page

Wilko Johnson, now the bad news: musician splits with manager after police investigate assault claims

Wilko Johnson, now the bad news

Former Dr Feelgood splits with manager after police investigate assault claims
Mark Udall: The Democrat Senator with a fight on his hands ahead of the US midterm elections

Mark Udall: The Democrat Senator with a fight on his hands

The Senator for Colorado is for gay rights, for abortion rights – and in the Republicans’ sights as they threaten to take control of the Senate next month
New discoveries show more contact between far-flung prehistoric humans than had been thought

New discoveries show more contact between far-flung prehistoric humans than had been thought

Evidence found of contact between Easter Islanders and South America
Cerys Matthews reveals how her uncle taped 150 interviews for a biography of Dylan Thomas

Cerys Matthews on Dylan Thomas

The singer reveals how her uncle taped 150 interviews for a biography of the famous Welsh poet
DIY is not fun and we've finally realised this as a nation

Homebase closures: 'DIY is not fun'

Homebase has announced the closure of one in four of its stores. Nick Harding, who never did know his awl from his elbow, is glad to see the back of DIY
The Battle of the Five Armies: Air New Zealand releases new Hobbit-inspired in-flight video

Air New Zealand's wizard in-flight video

The airline has released a new Hobbit-inspired clip dubbed "The most epic safety video ever made"
Pumpkin spice is the flavour of the month - but can you stomach the sweetness?

Pumpkin spice is the flavour of the month

The combination of cinnamon, clove, nutmeg (and no actual pumpkin), now flavours everything from lattes to cream cheese in the US
11 best sonic skincare brushes

11 best sonic skincare brushes

Forget the flannel - take skincare to the next level by using your favourite cleanser with a sonic facial brush
Paul Scholes column: I'm not worried about Manchester United's defence - Chelsea test can be the making of Phil Jones and Marcos Rojo

Paul Scholes column

I'm not worried about Manchester United's defence - Chelsea test can be the making of Jones and Rojo
Frank Warren: Boxing has its problems but in all my time I've never seen a crooked fight

Frank Warren: Boxing has its problems but in all my time I've never seen a crooked fight

While other sports are stalked by corruption, we are an easy target for the critics
Jamie Roberts exclusive interview: 'I'm a man of my word – I'll stay in Paris'

Jamie Roberts: 'I'm a man of my word – I'll stay in Paris'

Wales centre says he’s not coming home but is looking to establish himself at Racing Métro
How could three tourists have been battered within an inch of their lives by a burglar in a plush London hotel?

A crime that reveals London's dark heart

How could three tourists have been battered within an inch of their lives by a burglar in a plush London hotel?
Meet 'Porridge' and 'Vampire': Chinese state TV is offering advice for citizens picking a Western moniker

Lost in translation: Western monikers

Chinese state TV is offering advice for citizens picking a Western moniker. Simon Usborne, who met a 'Porridge' and a 'Vampire' while in China, can see the problem
Handy hacks that make life easier: New book reveals how to rid your inbox of spam, protect your passwords and amplify your iPhone

Handy hacks that make life easier

New book reveals how to rid your email inbox of spam, protect your passwords and amplify your iPhone with a loo-roll
KidZania lets children try their hands at being a firefighter, doctor or factory worker for the day

KidZania: It's a small world

The new 'educational entertainment experience' in London's Shepherd's Bush will allow children to try out the jobs that are usually undertaken by adults, including firefighter, doctor or factory worker