Anniversaries

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The Independent Online
Births: Johann Jacob Froberger, composer, 1616; Kawanabe Kyosai, painter, 1831; William Heinemann, publisher, 1863; Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, 1868; Bertrand Arthur William Russell, third Earl, philosopher, 1872; Frank Capra, writer and film director, 1897.

Deaths: Elias Ashmole, antiquarian, 1692; Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, playwright, 1799; Gustav Mahler, composer, 1911; John Nevil Maskelyne, stage magician, 1917; William Saroyan, author, 1981.

On this day: Henry II, King of England, married Eleanor of Aquitaine, 1152; Montreal (Ville Marie) in Canada was founded, 1642; after seceding from the established Church of Scotland, the Free Church of Scotland was founded, 1843; the European Convention of Human Rights came into force, 1954; the first London production of the musical show The Sound of Music was presented, 1961; in Washington State, United States, Mount St Helens erupted in a power blast 500 times more powerful than the Hiroshima atom bomb, 1980.

Today is the Feast Day of St Elgiva, St Eric, king of Sweden, St Felix of Cantalicio, St John I, pope, St Potamon and Saints Theodotus and Thecusa.

Lectures

National Gallery: Colin Wiggins, 'Spanish Eyes (iii): three portraits by Goya', 1pm.

Tate Gallery: Mark Gisbourne, 'Lowry: nostalgia or reality?', 1pm.

University College London: Professor Roy Collins, 'Toujours Laplace?', 5.30pm.

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