Anniversaries

TODAY

Births: Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, 1552; Robert Hooke, physicist, 1635; The Rev Gilbert White, naturalist and author, 1720; William Makepeace Thackeray, novelist and poet, 1811; Michelle - Ferdinande - Pauline Viardot-Garcia, mezzo-soprano and composer, 1821; Dr William Gilbert Grace, cricketer, 1848; Karl Wilhelm Julius Hugo Riemann, musicologist, 1849; Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, physicist, 1853; Philip Snowden, first Viscount Snowden, statesman, 1864; Laurence Housman, playwright, novelist and illustrator, 1865; Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian traitor, 1887; Sydney Horler, thriller writer, 1888; Clifford Odets, playwright, 1906.

Deaths: Godfrey de Bouillon, protector of the Holy Sepulchre, 1100; Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch), poet and scholar, 1374; Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, painter, 1610; Antonio Vieira, Jesuit missionary in Brazil, 1697; Jean-Antoine Watteau, painter, 1721; Peter III, Tsar of Russia, murdered 1762; John Paul Jones, American naval officer, 1792; Jane Austen, novelist, 1817; Emanuel Leutze, historical painter, 1868; Benito Pablo Juarez, president of Mexico, 1872; Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, historian and theologian, 1881; Charles-Marie Leconte de Lisle, poet, 1894; Horatio Alger, clergyman and writer, 1899; Marie Alexandra Victoria, Queen of Romania, 1938; Thomas Sturge Moore, poet and engraver, 1944; Vitezslav Novak, pianist and composer, 1949; Corneille-Jean-Francois Heymans, physiologist, 1968; Jack Hawkins, actor, 1973; Margaret Laurence (Jean Margaret Wemys), novelist, 1986.

On this day: Warren de la Rue made the first photograph of a solar eclipse, Spain, 1860; the Dogma of Papal Infallibility in matters of faith and morals was proclaimed by the Vatican Council, 1870; the Ballot Act was passed, after which the secret ballot became law, 1872; Weston's Music Hall, London (the Holborn Empire) closed, 1887; the Second Battle of the Marne was fought, 1918; the Matrimonial Causes Bill, which gave women equal divorce rights with men, received Royal Assent, 1923; the first volume of Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler was published, 1925; the Mersey Tunnel was formally opened, 1934; the Spanish Civil War began after a revolt under Emilio Mola and Francisco Franco, 1936; generation of electricity from nuclear power first took place at Schenectady, New York, US 1955; James Earl Ray (alias Ramon George Sneyd) was extradited to the US for complicity in the murder of Martin Luther King, 1968; General Arif, president of Iraq, was deposed after a military coup, 1968; John Stonehouse, former Labour Minister, returned to England to face 21 charges of fraud, forgery and conspiracy, 1975; Vietnam became a member of the United Nations, 1977.

Today is the Feast Day of St Arnoul or Arnulf of Metz, St Bruno of Segni, St Frederick of Utrecht and St Pambo.

TOMORROW

Births: Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1598; Garrett Colley Wellesley, first Earl of Mornington, composer, 1735; John Martin, historical painter, 1789; Vincenz Lachner, composer and conductor, 1811; Samuel Colt, inventor of the revolver, 1814; Gottfried Keller, poet and novelist, 1819; Hilaire Germaine Edgar Degas, painter, 1834; Edward Charles Pickering, astronomer, 1846; Lizzie Andrew Borden, alleged axe murderess, 1860; Charles Horace Mayo, surgeon and co-founder of the Mayo Clinic, 1865; Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky, poet, 1894; Dr Archibald Joseph Cronin, novelist, 1896; Herbert Marcuse, political theorist, 1898.

Deaths: Dr John Caius (Keys), physician, founder of the Cambridge college, 1573; Matthew Flinders, explorer of Australia, 1814; Georges-Maurice de Guerin du Cayla, poet, 1839; Thomas Cook, travel agent, 1892; Samuel Insull, industrialist, 1938; Thomas ('Tom') Walter Hayward, cricketer, 1939; Edward Knoblock, playwright, 1945; Syngman Rhee, Korean president, 1965.

On this day: Edward III of England defeated the Scots at the Battle of Halidon Hill, 1333; the Mary Rose, flagship of King Henry VIII, sank in the Solent with the loss of 700 lives, 1545; the Spanish Armada was sighted off the coast of England, 1588; William III of England was defeated at Landen (Neerwinden) by the French Marshal Luxembourg, 1693; Queen Caroline was forcibly prevented from appearing at the Coronation of King George IV, 1821; the Great Western steamship was launched at Bristol, 1837; the Franco-German conflict began after France declared war, 1870; the first Wimbledon Men's Singles Tennis final was played at Wimbledon, 1877; the Metro in Paris was opened, 1900; the building of Liverpool's Anglican Cathedral was started, 1904; Liverpool Cathedral was consecrated, 1924; Richard Loeb and Nathan Leopold pleaded guilty to murdering 14-year-old Bobbie Franks, in their pursuit of committing 'the perfect crime', US 1924; Laos became independent, 1949; the XVth Olympic Games opened in Helsinki, 1952; Brunel's iron ship, the SS Great Britain was brought back to England from the Falkland Islands, 1970; the Sandinista forces of Nicaragua entered Managua, 1979.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Ambrose Autpert, St Arsenius the Great, St James of Nisibia, St John Plesington, Saints Justa and Rufina, St Macrina the Younger and St Symmachus, Pope.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
ebooks
ebooksA special investigation by Andy McSmith
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: Bookkeeper

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: One of the world's leading suppliers and manuf...

Recruitment Genius: Multiple Apprentices Required

£6240 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Apprentices are required to join a privat...

Sauce Recruitment: HR Manager

£40000 per annum: Sauce Recruitment: This is an exciting opportunity for a HR...

Ashdown Group: Interim HR Manager - 3 Month FTC - Henley-on-Thames

£35000 - £40000 per annum: Ashdown Group: A well-established organisation oper...

Day In a Page

Isis hostage crisis: The prisoner swap has only one purpose for the militants - recognition its Islamic State exists and that foreign nations acknowledge its power

Isis hostage crisis

The prisoner swap has only one purpose for the militants - recognition its Islamic State exists and that foreign nations acknowledge its power, says Robert Fisk
Missing salvage expert who found $50m of sunken treasure before disappearing, tracked down at last

The runaway buccaneers and the ship full of gold

Salvage expert Tommy Thompson found sunken treasure worth millions. Then he vanished... until now
Homeless Veterans appeal: ‘If you’re hard on the world you are hard on yourself’

Homeless Veterans appeal: ‘If you’re hard on the world you are hard on yourself’

Maverick artist Grayson Perry backs our campaign
Assisted Dying Bill: I want to be able to decide about my own death - I want to have control of my life

Assisted Dying Bill: 'I want control of my life'

This week the Assisted Dying Bill is debated in the Lords. Virginia Ironside, who has already made plans for her own self-deliverance, argues that it's time we allowed people a humane, compassionate death
Move over, kale - cabbage is the new rising star

Cabbage is king again

Sophie Morris banishes thoughts of soggy school dinners and turns over a new leaf
11 best winter skin treats

Give your moisturiser a helping hand: 11 best winter skin treats

Get an extra boost of nourishment from one of these hard-working products
Paul Scholes column: The more Jose Mourinho attempts to influence match officials, the more they are likely to ignore him

Paul Scholes column

The more Jose Mourinho attempts to influence match officials, the more they are likely to ignore him
Frank Warren column: No cigar, but pots of money: here come the Cubans

Frank Warren's Ringside

No cigar, but pots of money: here come the Cubans
Isis hostage crisis: Militant group stands strong as its numerous enemies fail to find a common plan to defeat it

Isis stands strong as its numerous enemies fail to find a common plan to defeat it

The jihadis are being squeezed militarily and economically, but there is no sign of an implosion, says Patrick Cockburn
Virtual reality thrusts viewers into the frontline of global events - and puts film-goers at the heart of the action

Virtual reality: Seeing is believing

Virtual reality thrusts viewers into the frontline of global events - and puts film-goers at the heart of the action
Homeless Veterans appeal: MP says Coalition ‘not doing enough’

Homeless Veterans appeal

MP says Coalition ‘not doing enough’ to help
Larry David, Steve Coogan and other comedians share stories of depression in new documentary

Comedians share stories of depression

The director of the new documentary, Kevin Pollak, tells Jessica Barrett how he got them to talk
Has The Archers lost the plot with it's spicy storylines?

Has The Archers lost the plot?

A growing number of listeners are voicing their discontent over the rural soap's spicy storylines; so loudly that even the BBC's director-general seems worried, says Simon Kelner
English Heritage adds 14 post-war office buildings to its protected lists

14 office buildings added to protected lists

Christopher Beanland explores the underrated appeal of these palaces of pen-pushing
Human skull discovery in Israel proves humans lived side-by-side with Neanderthals

Human skull discovery in Israel proves humans lived side-by-side with Neanderthals

Scientists unearthed the cranial fragments from Manot Cave in West Galilee