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The Independent Online

Births: Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, philosopher and mathematician, 1646; George Sand (Amandine-Aurore Lucile (Dupin), Baronne Dudevant), novelist, 1804; Louis Bleriot, aviator, 1872; Sir Nigel Ross Playfair, actor and manager, 1874; Charles Laughton, actor, 1899; Amy Johnson, aviator, 1903. Deaths: Charles Goodyear, inventor, 1860; Allan Pinkerton, founder of Pinkerton's Detective Agency, 1884; Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1896; Erik Alfred-Leslie Satie (Eric Satie), composer, 1925; Alphonse Marie-Leon Daudet, novelist, 1942; Juan Domingo Pern, Argentine president, 1974. On this day: Sir Thomas More was put on trial, 1535; King William III defeated the Jacobites under James II at the Battle of the Boyne, 1690; addressing the Linnean Society, Charles Darwin announced his theory of evolution, 1858; the Battle of Gettysburg (American Civil War) began, 1863; Queen Victoria unveiled the Albert Memorial in London, 1872; the Union of South Africa was formed, with Dominion status, 1910; the first Variety Command Performance took place at the Palace Theatre, London, 1912; the Battle of the Somme began, 1916; the first tests of nuclear bombs began over Bikini Atoll, 1946; the Prince of Wales's Investiture was held at Caernarfon Castle, 1969. Today is the Feast Day of Saints Aaron and Julius, St Carilephus or Calais, St Eparchius or Cybard, St Gall of Clermont, St Oliver Plunket, St Servanus or Serf, St Shenute, St Simeon Salus and St Thierry or Theodoric of Mont d'Or.


Victoria and Albert Museum: Anne Hobbs, "Aspects of Beatrix Potter", 2.30pm.