The skull (not pictured) could tell us more about life in the Stone Age

Archaeologists find '8,000-year-old human skull containing brain matter'

The bone remains could be those of a human from the Stone Age

Arrow head marks on skeletons, suggest the victims were killed by enemy archers

Saharan remains may be evidence of first race war, 13,000 years ago

The skeletons – from the east bank of the Nile in northern Sudan – are from victims of the world’s oldest known relatively large-scale human armed conflict

The remains of Richard III, found under a car park in Leicester two years ago

Britain must dig deeper to save its archaeology

We are fascinated by the finds, from royal bones to antique gold, but the profession may go under
An artist’s impression of Pelagornis sandersi, which could fly great distances

Wingspan of the largest bird in history revealed by new scientific study

The bird, named Pelagornis sandersi, lived about 25 million or 28 million years ago

Ainara Sistiaga and her team dug at the site of an ancient campfire to find the human faeces

World's oldest faeces: Neanderthals ate more vegetables than previously thought, say scientists

Analysis of world's oldest faecal matter ever discovered indicated significant plant intake

A member of the Appledore Sub Aqua Club diver over the aft boilers of Iona 2

Historians reveal secrets of UK gun-running which lengthened the American civil war by two years

New historical and archaeological research is shining an embarrassing light on one of the darkest periods of British foreign policy.

Excavators work at the bottom of the reactivated Pit 91 at the Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles Thursday, June 19,

Prehistoric sabre-toothed cats and mammoths found in Los Angeles

Fossils are being discovered preserved in tar pits

The schistosome parasite, which enters the body through the skin of persons coming in contact with infested waters. The adult worm lives in the veins of its host and causes schistosomiasis

Parasitic egg that now infects 200 million people worldwide found in 6,200-year-old skeleton

Scientists have found the earliest known evidence of infection with a parasitic worm, that now afflicts more than 200 million people worldwide, in a skeleton more than 6,000 years old.

The 70-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus bataar on display in Ulan Bator

Fossil of a 70-million-year-old ‘Terror Lizard’ goes back to Mongolia

Deal agreed to return Tarbosaurus skeleton after it was illegally smuggled to Britain by a 'one-man black market in prehistoric fossils'

One of the 46 fossils found at the site in southern Chile

Vast ‘fish lizard’ graveyard discovered under melting glacier in Chile could reveal how the ancient ichthyosaurs became extinct

Scientists say it is the greatest South American ichthyosaur find in history

Richard III ’s remains show his scoliosis

A bone to pick with the Bard: Richard III was NOT a hunchback

An adolescent growth spurt that went wrong caused King Richard III’s physical deformity but it did not give him a hunchback, a limp or a withered arm as commonly portrayed in Shakespearian renditions of the last Plantagenet king, a study has found.

The underwater remains of what is thought to be Columbus’s flagship

Christopher Columbus Santa Maria discovery: Archaeologists hail find as 'amazingly significant'

The Independent revealed that remains found off the north coast of Haiti are believed by archaeologists to belong to the famous vessel

Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus: The life and legacy of the famous explorer

He might have believed it was Asia but his voyages to America changed the world

The wreck of the ‘Santa Maria’, as envisaged in 1492

Exclusive: Found after 500 years, the wreck of Christopher Columbus’s flagship the Santa Maria

Shipwreck found off coast of Haiti thought to be one of the most significant underwater discoveries in history

The newly dated Mesolithic site, 1.5 miles east of Stonehenge,  was located around a spring
News
A 1930 image of the Karl Albrecht Spiritousen and Lebensmittel shop, Essen. The shop was opened by Karl and Theo Albrecht’s mother; the brothers later founded Aldi
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Arts and Entertainment
Standing the test of time: Michael J Fox and Christopher Lloyd in 'Back to the Future'
filmA cult movie event aims to immerse audiences of 80,000 in ‘Back to the Future’. But has it lost its magic?
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Flora Spencer-Longhurst as Lavinia, William Houston as Titus Andronicus and Dyfan Dwyfor as Lucius
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exclusivePunk icon Viv Albertine on Sid Vicious, complacent white men, and why free love led to rape
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comedyAs ‘Luxury Comedy’ returns, Noel Fielding on why mainstream success scares him and what the future holds for 'The Boosh'
Life and Style
Flow chart: Karl Landsteiner discovered blood types in 1900, yet scientists have still not come up with an explanation for their existence
lifeAll of us have one. Yet even now, it’s a matter of debate what they’re for
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'Weird Al' Yankovic, or Alfred Matthew, at the 2014 Los Angeles Film Festival Screening of
musicHis latest video is an ode to good grammar. But what do our experts think he’s missed out?
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New Real Madrid signing James Rodríguez with club president Florentino Perez
sportColombian World Cup star completes £63m move to Spain
Travel
Hotel Tour d’Auvergne in Paris launches pay-what-you-want
travelIt seems fraught with financial risk, but the policy has its benefits
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booksThe best children's books for this summer
Life and Style
News to me: family events were recorded in the personal columns
techFamily events used to be marked in the personal columns. But now Facebook has usurped that
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The Google Doodle commemorating the start of the Commonwealth Games 2014
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Antoine Griezmann has started two of France’s four games so far
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Child's play: letting young people roam outdoors directly contradicts the current climate
lifeHow much independence should children have?
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Tycoons' text: Warren Buffett and Bill Gates both cite John Brookes' 'Business Adventures' as their favourite book
booksFind out why America's richest men are reading John Brookes
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Sign of the times: Prince in the 1984 'Purple Rain' film
travelPurple Rain turns 30 this week and to celebrate Christian Koch set off on a tour of The Artist's hometown
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<p><strong>2008</strong></p>
<p>Troubled actor Robert Downey Jr cements his comeback from drug problems by bagging the lead role in Iron Man. Two further films follow</p>
filmRobert Downey Jr named Hollywood's highest paid actor for second year running
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Dale Bolinger arranged to meet the girl via a fetish website
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Noel Fielding's 'Luxury Comedy': A land of the outright bizarre

Noel Fielding's 'Luxury Comedy'

A land of the outright bizarre
What are the worst 'Word Crimes'?

What are the worst 'Word Crimes'?

‘Weird Al’ Yankovic's latest video is an ode to good grammar. But what do The Independent’s experts think he’s missed out?
Can Secret Cinema sell 80,000 'Back to the Future' tickets?

The worst kept secret in cinema

A cult movie event aims to immerse audiences of 80,000 in ‘Back to the Future’. But has it lost its magic?
Facebook: The new hatched, matched and dispatched

The new hatched, matched and dispatched

Family events used to be marked in the personal columns. But now Facebook has usurped the ‘Births, Deaths and Marriages’ announcements
Why do we have blood types?

Are you my type?

All of us have one but probably never wondered why. Yet even now, a century after blood types were discovered, it’s a matter of debate what they’re for
Honesty box hotels: You decide how much you pay

Honesty box hotels

Five hotels in Paris now allow guests to pay only what they think their stay was worth. It seems fraught with financial risk, but the honesty policy has its benefit
Commonwealth Games 2014: Why weight of pressure rests easy on Michael Jamieson’s shoulders

Michael Jamieson: Why weight of pressure rests easy on his shoulders

The Scottish swimmer is ready for ‘the biggest race of my life’ at the Commonwealth Games
Some are reformed drug addicts. Some are single mums. All are on benefits. But now these so-called 'scroungers’ are fighting back

The 'scroungers’ fight back

The welfare claimants battling to alter stereotypes
Amazing video shows Nasa 'flame extinguishment experiment' in action

Fireballs in space

Amazing video shows Nasa's 'flame extinguishment experiment' in action
A Bible for billionaires

A Bible for billionaires

Find out why America's richest men are reading John Brookes
Paranoid parenting is on the rise - and our children are suffering because of it

Paranoid parenting is on the rise

And our children are suffering because of it
For sale: Island where the Magna Carta was sealed

Magna Carta Island goes on sale

Yours for a cool £4m
Phone hacking scandal special report: The slide into crime at the 'News of the World'

The hacker's tale: the slide into crime at the 'News of the World'

Glenn Mulcaire was jailed for six months for intercepting phone messages. James Hanning tells his story in a new book. This is an extract
We flinch, but there are degrees of paedophilia

We flinch, but there are degrees of paedophilia

Child abusers are not all the same, yet the idea of treating them differently in relation to the severity of their crimes has somehow become controversial
The truth about conspiracy theories is that some require considering

The truth about conspiracy theories is that some require considering

For instance, did Isis kill the Israeli teenagers to trigger a war, asks Patrick Cockburn