Jewish philanthropist lost in the sands of time thanks to the Nazis

A wealthy  patron who funded the excavation of the priceless Nefertiti bust was airbrushed from history. Now, a hundred years after the find, his story is finally being told

Berlin

She is regarded as the ancient world’s equivalent to the Mona Lisa and this weekend the 3,400–year old bust of the Egyptian Queen Nefertiti will be the centrepiece of a grand exhibition in Berlin’s Neues Museum, celebrating her discovery by German archaeologists exactly a century ago.

The delicately featured and priceless bust of the wife of the ancient Egyptian Sun King Akhenaten has been one of the highlights of Berlin’s museum collection since it was first put on display in the city in 1923.

It was unearthed by the famous German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt, at Amarna in 1912. He became a household name in Germany but few know the story of the wealthy Jewish patron and philanthropist who not only funded the excavation work that led to the bust’s discovery but also donated Nefertiti and scores of other ancient Egyptian artefacts he owned to Berlin’s museums. Organisers of the centenary celebrations are hoping to change that. James Simon is buried in Berlin’s Jewish cemetery. The wealthy Berlin businessman and patron of the arts was a member of the capital’s thriving pre-Second World War Jewish community. There is little doubt that without his passion for the arts and ancient history, Nefertiti would not be one of the city’s foremost attractions, viewed by half a million visitors a year.

But because Simon was a Prussian Jew, his name was expunged from German history books after Adolf Hitler’s Nazis came to power in 1933. “It was not acceptable for Simon to be recognised, like many other middle-class Jews, as somebody who had made a major contribution to German culture and done much to solve social problems,” wrote Der Spiegel this week.

Simon remained a largely forgotten figure in West Germany after the war. This weekend, his story will be told for the first time in a new television documentary about his life by the journalist and film director Carola Wedel.

Simon is described as “the most generous benefactor Berlin ever had”. Wedel’s film tells of his birth into a wealthy, liberal Berlin Jewish family in 1851. He attended a prestigious Catholic grammar school where he excelled, but his parents refused to allow him to indulge his passion and study ancient history, insisting instead that he join the family firm.

Simon Brothers was a cotton company with a turnover of 50 million Reichsmarks which netted an annual profit of 6 million. Historians interviewed in the film say the company’s wealth allowed Simon to exhibit “a degree of selflessness which is hardly conceivable by today’s standards”.

Simon donated a quarter of his income both to the arts and a whole series of philanthropic causes and social projects. His patronage for the arts began after the opening of Berlin’s National Gallery in 1876. Unlike its counterparts in Paris or London, the gallery had only a handful of exhibits.

Simon came to the rescue. In 1885 he gave a Renaissance painting to the gallery, followed by countless donations, including paintings by Rembrandt, Bellini and Mantegna, a series of works from the Middle Ages and Babylonian artefacts.

He also financed Germany’s archaeologists who were competing with their British and French counterparts to unearth the gems of ancient Egypt. According to the laws of the time, Simon was the rightful owner of half of everything they found.

When Borchardt discovered Nefertiti, it was Simon, as the bust’s owner, who arranged for it to be sent to Berlin. In 1920, he donated the bust to the city’s museums.

Simon’s generosity did not end there. In 1889 he started funding the construction of public baths. That was followed by the founding of a club for working-class children. In 1906 he opened a home for abused and disadvantaged children. As anti-Semitism began to take root in Germany, he also financed a scheme which invested millions in helping east European Jews emigrate to the Americas and Palestine.

But by 1925 Simon was in financial trouble. He was forced to close down his business, sold his opulent Berlin villa and moved into a simple apartment.

When Egypt appealed to Germany to return Nefertiti, Simon wrote to the Berlin Museum holding the bust, and reminded its directors that they had once given an undertaking to do so in the event of such a request from Cairo. But the museum’s directors refused.

Just who is the rightful owner of the Pharaonic Queen whose name means “a beautiful woman has arrived” has been the subject of a simmering diplomatic row between Egypt and Germany for decades. Cairo claims the Germans tricked the Egyptians into allowing them to take the bust out of the country. Germany maintains there was no foul play and has declined all demands for the return of the bust.

Simon was so incensed by Berlin’s refusal to return Nefertiti to Egypt, he turned down an invitation to attend the opening of the city’s famous Pergamon Museum in protest. He died alone and embittered in 1932. Eighty years after his death, Berlin is still not contemplating Nefertiti’s return but it plans a permanent tribute to its forgotten patron. A new gallery being built on the city’s Museum Island is to be called the James Simon Gallery.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
ebooks
ebooksA special investigation by Andy McSmith
News
Andy Davidhazy at the beginning (left) and end (right) of his hike
video
News
Taylor Swift is applying to trademark song lyrics from 1989
people
Voices
The popularity of TV shows such as The Liver Birds encouraged Liverpudlians to exaggerate their Scouse accent
voicesWe exaggerate regional traits and turn them into jokes - and those on the receiving end are in on it too, says DJ Taylor
Life and Style
Parker says: 'I once had a taster use the phrase 'smells like the sex glands of a lemming'. Who in the world can relate to that?'
food + drinkRobert Parker's 100-point scale is a benchmark of achievement for wine-makers everywhere
News
i100
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Junior Web Designer - Client Liaison

£6 per hour: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity to join a gro...

Recruitment Genius: Service Delivery Manager

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: A Service Delivery Manager is required to join...

Recruitment Genius: Massage Therapist / Sports Therapist

£12000 - £24000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: A opportunity has arisen for a ...

Ashdown Group: Practice Accountant - Bournemouth - £38,000

£32000 - £38000 per annum: Ashdown Group: A successful accountancy practice in...

Day In a Page

Election 2015: How many of the Government's coalition agreement promises have been kept?

Promises, promises

But how many coalition agreement pledges have been kept?
The Gaza fisherman who built his own reef - and was shot dead there by an Israeli gunboat

The death of a Gaza fisherman

He built his own reef, and was fatally shot there by an Israeli gunboat
Saudi Arabia's airstrikes in Yemen are fuelling the Gulf's fire

Saudi airstrikes are fuelling the Gulf's fire

Arab intervention in Yemen risks entrenching Sunni-Shia divide and handing a victory to Isis, says Patrick Cockburn
Zayn Malik's departure from One Direction shows the perils of fame in the age of social media

The only direction Zayn could go

We wince at the anguish of One Direction's fans, but Malik's departure shows the perils of fame in the age of social media
Young Magician of the Year 2015: Meet the schoolgirl from Newcastle who has her heart set on being the competition's first female winner

Spells like teen spirit

A 16-year-old from Newcastle has set her heart on being the first female to win Young Magician of the Year. Jonathan Owen meets her
Jonathan Anderson: If fashion is a cycle, this young man knows just how to ride it

If fashion is a cycle, this young man knows just how to ride it

British designer Jonathan Anderson is putting his stamp on venerable house Loewe
Number plates scheme could provide a licence to offend in the land of the free

Licence to offend in the land of the free

Cash-strapped states have hit on a way of making money out of drivers that may be in collision with the First Amendment, says Rupert Cornwell
From farm to fork: Meet the Cornish fishermen, vegetable-growers and butchers causing a stir in London's top restaurants

From farm to fork in Cornwall

One man is bringing together Cornwall's most accomplished growers, fishermen and butchers with London's best chefs to put the finest, freshest produce on the plates of some of the country’s best restaurants
Robert Parker interview: The world's top wine critic on tasting 10,000 bottles a year, absurd drinking notes and New World wannabes

Robert Parker interview

The world's top wine critic on tasting 10,000 bottles a year, absurd drinking notes and New World wannabes
Don't believe the stereotype - or should you?

Don't believe the stereotype - or should you?

We exaggerate regional traits and turn them into jokes - and those on the receiving end are in on it too, says DJ Taylor
How to make your own Easter egg: Willie Harcourt-Cooze shares his chocolate recipes

How to make your own Easter egg

Willie Harcourt-Cooze talks about his love affair with 'cacao' - and creates an Easter egg especially for The Independent on Sunday
Bill Granger recipes: Our chef declares barbecue season open with his twist on a tradtional Easter Sunday lamb lunch

Bill Granger's twist on Easter Sunday lunch

Next weekend, our chef plans to return to his Aussie roots by firing up the barbecue
Joe Marler: 'It's the way I think the game should be played'

Joe Marler: 'It's the way I think the game should be played'

The England prop relives the highs and lows of last Saturday's remarkable afternoon of Six Nations rugby
Cricket World Cup 2015: Has the success of the tournament spelt the end for Test matches?

Cricket World Cup 2015

Has the success of the tournament spelt the end for Test matches?
The Last Word: Justin Gatlin knows the price of everything, the value of nothing

Michael Calvin's Last Word

Justin Gatlin knows the price of everything, the value of nothing