A scientist awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine today for his discoveries about the immune system died three days ago without ever knowing of the honour.
The Nobel committee had not known of Ralph Steinman's death and it was unclear whether the prize would be rescinded because Nobel statutes do not allow posthumous awards.
Canadian Steinman, 68, who shared the prize with American Bruce Beutler and French scientist Jules Hoffmann, died on September 30 of pancreatic cancer, said Rockefeller University, adding he had been treated with immunotherapy based on his discovery of dendritic cells two decades earlier.
The cells help regulate adaptive immunity, an immune system response that purges invading micro-organisms from the body.
Nobel committee member Goran Hansson said the Nobel committee did not know Steinman was dead when it chose him as a winner and was looking through its regulations.
"It is incredibly sad news," Mr Hansson said. "We can only regret that he didn't have the chance to receive the news he had won the Nobel Prize. Our thoughts are now with his family."
The trio's discoveries have enabled the development of improved vaccines against infectious diseases. In the long term they could also yield better treatments of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and chronic inflammatory diseases.
Beutler and Hoffmann were cited for their discoveries in the 1990s of receptor proteins that can recognise bacteria and other microorganisms as they enter the body, and activate the first line of defence in the immune system, known as innate immunity.
The discoveries have helped scientists understand why the immune system sometimes attacks its own tissues, paving the way for new ways to fight inflammatory diseases, Hansson said.
"They have made possible the development of new methods for preventing and treating disease, for instance with improved vaccines against infections and in attempts to stimulate the immune system to attack tumours the committee said.
No vaccines are on the market yet, but Hansson told AP that vaccines against hepatitis are in the pipeline. "Large clinical trials are being done today," he said.