Battle of the Airlines: Rivalry that led to the humbling of 'world's favourite airline': Michael Harrison on the challenge that became an increasing annoyance to Lord King, a man used to getting his own way

LORD KING of Wartnaby used to have a habit of feigning momentary amnesia when the name of Richard Branson was mentioned; 'Richard who?' was his customary response.

For years the acerbic and doughty chairman of British Airways rode roughshod over opponents in the same imperious fashion that he rode to hounds. Giant airlines at home and abroad, entrepreneurs of the likes of Sir Freddie Laker, even ministers of the Crown, quailed before the might of Lord King's lobby machine.

How is it then, that he and BA have been humbled by an ex-hippie with a handful of second-hand jumbo jets and a penchant for woolly jumpers, hot air ballooning and self-publicity?

To understand, it is necessary to examine what motivates Lord King. For the last decade, he has been used to getting his own way - one reason he was paid pounds 670,000 last year. He conducted BA's affairs as if it were some latter-day fiefdom, revelling in the extraordinary power and influence that running a national flag-carrier confers.

When Lord King wanted BA's global network of routes protected before privatisation, he got it. When BA wanted British Caledonian, it got it. When Lord King wanted Dan-Air, he got it. When BA wanted protection from rival US mega-carriers at its Heathrow stronghold, it got it.

In Richard Branson's Virgin Atlantic, Lord King was confronted with a rather different proposition. Virgin, with its seven jets, eight destinations and staff of 2,000, was not a serious competitive threat to BA with its fleet of 280 aircraft, 24 million passengers, 151 scheduled services, pounds 5bn turnover and profits of pounds 285m. And yet Virgin and Mr Branson got under his skin and rattled the corporate complacency of BA.

Virgin cocked a snook at BA's self-styled reputation as 'the world's favourite airline' by targeting its most lucrative Atlantic routes and offering high-quality services at lower prices.

In reality, Lord King and BA had bigger fish to fry - the main competitive threat came not from Virgin but the susbidised state-owned flag carriers elsewhere in Europe and the modern, aggressive US carriers that had taken over the transatlantic routes.

But Lord King, the deal-maker par excellence, political manipulator and Thatcherite business hero, also knew that the airline business was about prestige and profile.

In September 1990, an event occurred which was to outrage BA - Britons stranded in the Gulf by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait were seen on television being airlifted to safety by courtesy of a smiling Richard Branson, not the country's flag-carrying airline.

To Lord King, who had always enjoyed easy access to the corridors of power, it was an affront.

From its inception in 1984, Virgin Atlantic had gradually begun to extend operations from Gatwick to the point where it was flying to half a dozen US cities. But as long as Virgin was restricted to London's second airport, BA could live with it.

In 1991, all that changed. First Virgin was allowed into Heathrow, BA's bastion. Second, BA was forced to surrender some of its services to Tokyo - one of the world's most lucrative routes - to Virgin to increase competition.

Lord King was angry about the first change but incandescent with anger at the second which he memorably described as an act of 'confiscation' by the Government. Formerly one of the Conservatives' staunchest allies, he cancelled BA's donation to party funds.

Although they later kissed and made up, the advance of Virgin on BA's long-haul international territory continued inexorably. In March last year, Mr Branson pocketed pounds 300m from the sale of his music business - providing him with more than enough cash to plan expanding his route network to Johannesburg, the US west coast and Australia. When the process is complete, BA will have a significant rival on its hands.

Lord King will, not, however, be in the cockpit helping BA in its dogfight. He retires in July to take up the honorary post of president - not, as initially reported, for life but for three years.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA year of political gossip, levity and intrigue from the sharpest pen in Westminster
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Fundraising Manager / Income Generation Coach

£21000 - £25000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: A smart software company locate...

Recruitment Genius: Senior Account Manager

£25000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Busy, friendly and creative marketing ag...

Ashdown Group: IT Support Analyst - London - £45,000

£35000 - £45000 per annum + benefits: Ashdown Group: IT Support Analyst - Wes...

Recruitment Genius: Media Telesales Executive

£20000 - £25000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity...

Day In a Page

Syria crisis: Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more refugees as one young mother tells of torture by Assad regime

Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more Syrian refugees

One young mother tells of torture by Assad regime
The enemy within: People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back – with promising results

The enemy within

People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back
'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

Survivors of the Nazi concentration camp remember its horror, 70 years on
Autumn/winter menswear 2015: The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore

Autumn/winter menswear 2015

The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore
'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

Army general planning to come out
Iraq invasion 2003: The bloody warnings six wise men gave to Tony Blair as he prepared to launch poorly planned campaign

What the six wise men told Tony Blair

Months before the invasion of Iraq in 2003, experts sought to warn the PM about his plans. Here, four of them recall that day
25 years of The Independent on Sunday: The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century

25 years of The Independent on Sunday

The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century
Homeless Veterans appeal: 'Really caring is a dangerous emotion in this kind of work'

Homeless Veterans appeal

As head of The Soldiers' Charity, Martin Rutledge has to temper compassion with realism. He tells Chris Green how his Army career prepared him
Wu-Tang Clan and The Sexual Objects offer fans a chance to own the only copies of their latest albums

Smash hit go under the hammer

It's nice to pick up a new record once in a while, but the purchasers of two latest releases can go a step further - by buying the only copy
Geeks who rocked the world: Documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry

The geeks who rocked the world

A new documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry
Belle & Sebastian interview: Stuart Murdoch reveals how the band is taking a new direction

Belle & Sebastian is taking a new direction

Twenty years ago, Belle & Sebastian was a fey indie band from Glasgow. It still is – except today, as prime mover Stuart Murdoch admits, it has a global cult following, from Hollywood to South Korea
America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

These days in the US things are pretty much stuck where they are, both in politics and society at large, says Rupert Cornwell
A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

A veteran of the Fifties campaigns is inspiring a new generation of activists
Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

A C Benson called him 'a horrid little fellow', George Orwell would have shot him, but what a giant he seems now, says DJ Taylor
Growing mussels: Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project

Growing mussels

Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project