He will appear today at Bow Street magistrates' court, sitting at the high-security Belmarsh prison complex in south-east London.
Mr Osman is accused of trying to detonate a bomb on board an Underground train at Shepherd's Bush, west London, during a wave of failed attacks on the capital's transport system on 21 July. He was arrested in Italy a week after the attempted bombings.
A chartered plane carried Mr Osman, 27, also known as Hamdi Issac, to RAF Northolt,yesterday where a convoy of vehicles, including police outriders, drove him to the high-security Paddington Green police station. He had not been informed of the date of the secret operation to return him to Britain, Antonietta Sonnessa, his lawyer in Italy, said.
He was taken out of solitary confinement at Rebibbia jail on the outskirts of Rome just before 9am British time and driven in a prison van to Ciampino airport. He boarded the plane at 11am British time.
Judges had agreed to an extradition request by British authorities, but the process was delayed by an appeal. This was rejected on 13 September, after which the Italian authorities had 10 days to arrange his return. Osman was returned under a new fast-track system of European arrest warrants. Italy signed up to the system, a day before Osman's arrest, the Home Office said.
Three other alleged would-be suicide bombers have been charged in the UK over the failed bombings. They are Ibrahim Muktar Said, 27, of Stoke Newington, north London, Ramzi Mohammed, 23, of North Kensington, west London, and Yassin Omar, 24, of New Southgate, north London. All three are charged with conspiracy to murder and making or possessing an explosive with intent to endanger life or cause serious injury on 21 July. A fifth man, Manfo Kwaku Asiedu, 32, of Finsbury Park, north London, is also charged with conspiracy to murder and conspiracy to cause explosions likely to endanger life. They have been remanded in custody until their next court appearance at the Old Bailey on 14 November.