North Korea staged a painstakingly choreographed military pageant intended to strike fear into their adversaries and rally its people behind young ruler Kim Jong Un on the 60th anniversary of the armistice that ended the Korean War.
Goose-stepping soldiers, columns of tanks and a broad array of missiles poised on mobile launchers paraded through Pyongyang's main square on Saturday in a lavish assembly of weapons and troops.
For one day only, the world was granted a brief glimpse of North Korea's military up close. Although Pyongyang frequently uses the occasion to reveal new, though not always operational, hardware, there did not appear to be any new weapons in Saturday's parade. However, it's arsenal of missiles remained front-and-center.
Leader Kim Jong Un overlooked a sea of spectators mobilized in Kim Il Sung Square to cheer and wave flags whilst saluting his troops from a review stand. He was flanked by senior military officials dressed in olive green and white uniforms laden with medals. As fighter jets screamed overhead, a relaxed looking Kim smiled and spoke with China's vice president. China fought alongside North Korea during the war and is Pyongyang's only major ally and a crucial source of economic aid. Kim did not make a speech.
Kim's rule began in late 2011 following the death of his father, Kim Jong Il, and has been marked by high tensions between Washington and Seoul. He has overseen two long-range rocket launches and a nuclear test that drew widespread condemnation and tightened U.N. sanctions.
North and South Korea have returned to tentative diplomacy in recent weeks, but March and April saw threats of nuclear war against Washington and Seoul in response to annual South Korean - US military drills and U.N. condemnation of Pyongyang's February nuclear test, the country's third. Long-stalled North Korean nuclear disarmament talks show no sign of resuming.
Saturday's parade marks a holiday the North Koreans call “ Victory Day in the Fatherland Liberation War,” although the 1950 to 1953 Korean War that it refers to ended in a truce and the Korean Peninsula remains technically at war.
2012's parade, held to commemorate the April celebrations of the 100th birthday of the late national founder Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Un's grandfather, created a buzz among military watchers when the North rolled out a mysterious long-range missile known abroad as the KN-08. Most outside observers now believe the missiles to have been mock-ups, but they were carried on mobile launchers that appeared to have been obtained from China, possibly against U.N. arms trade sanctions.
Choe Ryong Hae, the army's top political officer, said North Korea should be ready to fight to defend the stability the country needs to revive the economy. But his speech at Kim Il Sung Square was mild compared with past fiery rhetoric from Pyongyang attacking the United States and South Korea.
Meanwhile, in South Korea, President Park Geun-hye vowed not to tolerate provocations from North Korea, but also said Seoul would work on building trust with the North. Ina speech, Parks said: “I urge North Korea to give up the development of nuclear weapons if the country is to start on a path toward true change and progress.”
North Korea is estimated to have a handful of crude nuclear bombs, but many analysts estimate that it has not yet mastered the technology necessary to build warheads small enough to fit on long-range missiles.
About 200 people gathered in Seoul, some burning pictures of the North's ruling Kim dynasty, at a rally meant “to condemn the nuclear development and threatening strategy of the tyrannical regime of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un,” said Park Chan-sung, an anti-North Korea activist.
Shin Eun-gyeong, who visited an exhibit on the armistice on Saturday at a recently opened history museum, said she wants the rival Koreas to be unified — but as a democracy, not under North Korea's autocratic rule. “It's a real tragedy for Korea that we are still a divided nation,” Shin said.
The North's parade tradition hails back to the founding of the country in 1948. Few countries, including North Korea's communist models, continue to display their military forces in public squares with such pomp and pageantry. But Pyongyang has stuck with them because its leaders believe they are a good way to show the world those things about the military they want to reveal, while at the same time sending a potent message domestically of the power of the ruling elite.
“The beauty of a parade is that weapons systems don't actually have to work in order to be impressive: a missile launcher looks good even when the missile won't launch,” said David Stone, an expert on the Soviet and Russian militaries at Kansas State University.
Almost as soon as last year's parade was over, military experts around the world said they thought the stars of the show — the long-range KN-08 missiles — were mock-ups of a design that is still being perfected and probably couldn't actually fly, despite North Korea's claims that it has the capability to strike the United States with nuclear-tipped ICBMs.
“They certainly learned that they might lose some reputation by showing imperfect mock-ups,” said Marcus Schiller, a private-sector aerospace engineer in Germany who is regarded as one of the world's leading authorities on North Korea's missile capabilities. “Better to show nothing and let the world know by 'leaked secret information' how dangerous they are.”
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