1223: The Mongols invade. They dominate Russia for the next 250 years and, in 1382: burn Moscow to the ground.
1325-40: The reign of "Moneybags" Ivan I. He chooses to live in Moscow, and the seat of the Orthodox Church moves west from Vladimir to the city.
1370: The Lithuanians lay siege to Moscow, but are unable to scale the recently strengthened Kremlin walls.
1453: Constantinople falls to the Turks, releasing the Russian Orthodox Church from Byzantine control. Within a decade, Ivan the Great declares Moscow the "Third Rome", the new centre of Orthodoxy.
1613: Mikhail Romanov is elected Tsar, beginning the Romanov dynasty.
1712: Peter the Great, who hated the place, moves the capital to St Petersburg.
1812: Napoleon's troops invade. Most of the city is destroyed by fire when the French beat a retreat.
1825: The Bolshoi Theatre opens.
1918: Lenin restores the city's status as capital, after more than two centuries. This time, it was at the heart of the world's first Communist state, the Soviet Union.
1941: Hitler's troops reach the edge of the city, but fail to take it.
1991: Tanks on the streets, after a failed coup against Mikhail Gorbachev.
1993: More tanks, after Boris Yeltsin sends in troops to bombard parliament.
1997: The 850th anniversary.Reuse content