French government reshuffle: President Hollande ejects opponents of economic reforms in new ‘clarified’ cabinet

Vocal opponents of austerity have been purged, but will this be the last throw of the dice for the least popular administration since 1958?

Paris

A new government without a natural majority in parliament and little popular support will attempt over the next two years to impose the economic reforms which France has resisted, or skirted, for two decades.

Officially, the administration that took office tonight – the fourth government of François Hollande’s 27-months-old presidency – will be a band of like-minded brothers and sisters loyal to the courageous, reformist line of the President and his Prime Minister, Manuel Valls.

Looked at another way, it will be a narrow, unrepresentative administration trying to impose complex political and economic choices on a querulous country – and a traditionalist left – which thought that it had voted for a radically different approach in 2012.

Over the next couple of years, Mr Hollande, Mr Valls and their new governing team will be trying to scale back the sprawling French state, redraw the French administrative map, reduce the payroll tax burden of business, rekindle growth and reverse the relentless rise of unemployment.

As if that were not enough, they will also be trying to reinvent a French left and centre-left which remains largely hostile to the market-friendly “social democratic” choices belatedly made by Mr Hollande (in the wake of almost every other large centre-left party in Europe).

Video: France to continue with economic policies

Such multiple tasks would be daunting for a popular president and a popular government. After two years of muddle and hesitation, and poor economic results, President Hollande is mired at 17 per cent in the opinion polls – the lowest score of any president in the Fifth Republic (since 1958). His Prime Minister, Manuel Valls, is also beginning to plunge in the polls as the French economy flatlines and unemployment creeps beyond 10 per cent.

The new government will be hostage to the whims of a narrow Socialist parliamentary majority, which includes from 40 to 50 “supporters” of the weekend’s anti-austerity tirade by the Economy Minister Arnaud Montebourg. He and two other high-profile, left-wing ministers – Benoît Hamon and Aurélie Filipetti – were purged from the “clarified” government team announced on Wednesday.

A Hollande loyalist, the Finance Minister, Michel Sapin, 62, will absorb much of Mr Montebourg’s economic policy portfolio. A non-elected senior Élysée Palace official, Emmanuel Macron, 37 – regarded as a right-winger – becomes Economy and Industry Minister.

A Moroccan-born, rising star of the French left, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, 36, becomes the youngest ever French Education Minister and the first woman to hold the post.

Another young woman of non-French origin, Fleur Pellerin, 41, who was adopted from South Korea as a baby, is promoted to Culture Minister. Patrick Kanner, 47, deputy mayor of Lille, become Sports Minister. 

In a day of difficult negotiations, the Greens, a small left-wing party, and at least one Socialist ex-minister refused to join the new Valls team. All other senior posts remained unchanged.

French Prime Minister Manuel Valls leaves a meeting in Paris to appoint a new cabinet amid rows over economic policy, plunging the country into a fresh political crisis French Prime Minister Manuel Valls leaves a meeting in Paris to appoint a new cabinet amid rows over economic policy (Getty)
In theory, the new government is extremely fragile. It has no natural majority in the National Assembly if the Socialist dissidents – or traditionalists – rebel. Only the certainty of left-wing wipe-out in an early parliamentary election will prevent the Socialist rebels from bringing the government down when critical budgetary votes come due next month.

All the same, accidents do happen.

The fate of the new government – Valls II – also depends on the fears and political calculations of the main centre-right opposition party, the Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP). Leaderless and divided, the last thing that the UMP wants is to fight, and probably win, an early parliamentary election which would plunge it into an unpopular “co-habitation” with President Hollande until the next presidential election in May 2017.

Here too, accidents might happen.

Over this shattered political and economic landscape looms the baleful presence of Marine Le Pen’s “de-demonised” Front National. Based on the strong NF performance in local and European elections in the spring, an early legislative election, in say 2015, could give the French far-right a large bloc of seats in the National Assembly for the first time.

How did it come to this? The fault is not just that of François Hollande. Ever since 1995-96, when Jacques Chirac abandoned his brief attempts to reform pensions and welfare and restore French competitiveness, successive governments have baulked at most of the hard choices.

Nicolas Sarkozy came to power in 2007 promising much. He delivered little before he was swamped by the world financial crisis of 2008-9. Mr Hollande defeated him in 2012 by promising to cut deficits mostly by raising taxes on the rich, to generate growth and jobs and to make “big finance” his enemy.

After 19 months of tax rises and rising unemployment, Mr Hollande switched direction in January to his “competitiveness pact” – a long overdue easing of the payroll tax burden on French industry in return for the promise of the creation of thousands of new jobs.

Eight months later this pact is still being negotiated with unions and employers. Mr Hollande and Mr Valls are reversing some tax rises and trying to take a €50bn axe to the French state over three years. They are committed to simplifying and reducing French bureaucracy by, amongst other things, reducing the number of regional governments from 22 to 12.

Outgoing ‘anti-austerity’ rebels: Arnaud Montebourg, Benoit Hamon, Aurélie Filippetti Outgoing ‘anti-austerity’ rebels: Arnaud Montebourg, Benoit Hamon, Aurélie Filippetti (Getty)
In his tirade at the weekend, Mr Montebourg did not reject all these policies. He objected to the rapid, EU-imposed pace of the cuts in state deficits all over Europe, which he blamed on the “kafkaesque” right-wing “dogma” of the German Chancellor Angela Merkel. Some of the savings in France, he said, should be spent instead on boosting the purchasing power of ordinary people through tax cuts and welfare rises.

Mr Montebourg’s timing was strange. The French government was already heading broadly in this direction. Mr Hollande planned – and doubtless still plans – to try to persuade Ms Merkel and Brussels to cut him some more deficit-cutting slack next month. The European Central Bank is already moving towards a form of “quantitative easing” to revive the eurozone economies – another key Montebourg demand.

By making a direct attack on Ms Merkel, Mr Montebourg was, in effect, making a dramatic resignation speech without resigning. Other Socialist politicians assume that he had concluded that the Hollande-Valls government was doomed to fail. He decided that it was the right time to position himself to become the “Next Big Thing” on the French left.

Mr Montebourg may be right about the pace of the deficit cuts. He may be right about Mr Hollande’s chances of pulling his presidency from the fire. The self-serving nature of his departure is a reminder that, over two decades at least, France has frequently been let down by narrow, short-term, egotistical and electorally-driven choices by its mainstream politicians.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Voices
Lucerne’s Hotel Château Gütsch, one of the lots in our Homeless Veterans appeal charity auction
charity appeal
Arts and Entertainment
Tony Hughes (James Nesbitt) after his son Olly disappeared on a family holiday in France
tv
News
people

Jo from Northern Ireland was less than impressed by Russell Brand's attempt to stage a publicity stunt

Sport
Scunthorpe goalkeeper Sam Slocombe (left) is congratulated by winning penalty taker Miguel Llera (right)
football
PROMOTED VIDEO
News
ebooksNow available in paperback
Arts and Entertainment
The Apprentice candidates Roisin Hogan, Solomon Akhtar, Mark Wright, Bianca Miller, Daniel Lassman
tvReview: But which contestants got the boot?
Life and Style
A woman walks by a pandal art installation entitled 'Mars Mission' with the figure of an astronaut during the Durga Puja festival in Calcutta, India
techHow we’ll investigate the existence of, and maybe move in with, our alien neighbours
Arts and Entertainment
Jim Carrey and Jeff Daniels ride again in Dumb and Dumber To
filmReview: Dumb And Dumber To was a really stupid idea
Arts and Entertainment
Sir Ian McKellen tempts the Cookie Monster
tvSir Ian McKellen joins the Cookie Monster for a lesson on temptation
News
i100
Travel
Tourists bask in the sun beneath the skyscrapers of Dubai
travelBritish embassy uses social media campaign to issue travel advice for festive holiday-makers in UAE
Arts and Entertainment
Jennifer Saunders stars as Miss Windsor, Dennis's hysterical French teacher
filmJennifer Saunders and Kate Moss join David Walliams on set for TV adaptation of The Boy in the Dress
Life and Style
tech
Sport
Nabil Bentaleb (centre) celebrates putting Tottenham ahead
footballTottenham 4 Newcastle 0: Spurs fans dreaming of Wembley final after dominant win
Voices
Jimmy Mubenga died after being restrained on an aircraft by G4S escorts
voicesJonathan Cox: Tragedy of Jimmy Mubenga highlights lack of dignity shown to migrants
Life and Style
Sebastian Siemiatkowski is the 33-year-old co-founder and CEO of Klarna, which provides a simple way for people to buy things online
tech
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Ashdown Group: Helpdesk Analyst

£25000 per annum: Ashdown Group: An established media firm based in Surrey is ...

Ashdown Group: Java Developer - Hertfordshire - £47,000 + bonus + benefits

£40000 - £470000 per annum + bonus: Ashdown Group: Java Developer / J2EE Devel...

Ashdown Group: Head of Finance - Financial Director - London - £70,000

£70000 per annum: Ashdown Group: Head of Finance - Financial Controller - Fina...

Recruitment Genius: Business Development Executive - Nationwide - OTE £65,000

£30000 - £65000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This small technology business ...

Day In a Page

Jeb Bush vs Hillary Clinton: The power dynamics of the two first families

Jeb Bush vs Hillary Clinton

Karen Tumulty explores the power dynamics of the two first families
Stockholm is rivalling Silicon Valley with a hotbed of technology start-ups

Stockholm is rivalling Silicon Valley

The Swedish capital is home to two of the most popular video games in the world, as well as thousands of technology start-ups worth hundreds of millions of pounds – and it's all happened since 2009
Did Japanese workers really get their symbols mixed up and display Santa on a crucifix?

Crucified Santa: Urban myth refuses to die

The story goes that Japanese store workers created a life-size effigy of a smiling "Father Kurisumasu" attached to a facsimile of Our Lord's final instrument of torture
Jennifer Saunders and Kate Moss join David Walliams on set for TV adaptation of The Boy in the Dress

The Boy in the Dress: On set with the stars

Walliams' story about a boy who goes to school in a dress will be shown this Christmas
La Famille Bélier is being touted as this year's Amelie - so why are many in the deaf community outraged by it?

Deaf community outraged by La Famille Bélier

The new film tells the story of a deaf-mute farming family and is being touted as this year's Amelie
10 best high-end laptops

10 best high-end laptops

From lightweight and zippy devices to gaming beasts, we test the latest in top-spec portable computers
Michael Carberry: ‘After such a tough time, I’m not sure I will stay in the game’

Michael Carberry: ‘After such a tough time, I’m not sure I will stay in the game’

The batsman has grown disillusioned after England’s Ashes debacle and allegations linking him to the Pietersen affair
Susie Wolff: A driving force in battle for equality behind the wheel

Susie Wolff: A driving force in battle for equality behind the wheel

The Williams driver has had plenty of doubters, but hopes she will be judged by her ability in the cockpit
Adam Gemili interview: 'No abs Adam' plans to muscle in on Usain Bolt's turf

'No abs Adam' plans to muscle in on Usain Bolt's turf

After a year touched by tragedy, Adam Gemili wants to become the sixth Briton to run a sub-10sec 100m
Calls for a military mental health 'quality mark'

Homeless Veterans campaign

Expert calls for military mental health 'quality mark'
Racton Man: Analysis shows famous skeleton was a 6ft Bronze Age superman

Meet Racton Man

Analysis shows famous skeleton was a 6ft Bronze Age superman
Garden Bridge: St Paul’s adds to £175m project’s troubled waters

Garden Bridge

St Paul’s adds to £175m project’s troubled waters
Stuff your own Christmas mouse ornament: An evening class in taxidermy with a festive feel

Stuff your own Christmas mouse ornament

An evening class in taxidermy with a festive feel
Joint Enterprise: The legal doctrine which critics say has caused hundreds of miscarriages of justice

Joint Enterprise

The legal doctrine which critics say has caused hundreds of miscarriages of justice
Freud and Eros: Love, Lust and Longing at the Freud Museum: Objects of Desire

Freud and Eros

Love, Lust and Longing at the Freud Museum