The blood is still visible on Abdullah’s red hoodie. He has broken ribs from being hit with a lamp post, and a gash above his eye. His injuries are the result of a recent attack by a group of Lebanese men as he was walking home from his construction job. His crime? “I’m Syrian,” he says.
The attackers gave Abdullah and his family of five until 6 o’clock in the morning to leave Ouzai, the predominantly Shia neighbourhood in the south of Beirut where he was living. “We fled for our lives,” he says.
Abdullah (not his real name) is not an isolated case. Syrians are increasingly being targeted in Lebanon as patience with the refugee population runs out. The country hosts 1.5 million registered Syrian refugees, an increase of at least 25 per cent since 2011. They compete for limited resources and undercut Lebanese wages. The international community is struggling to allocate additional resources to ensure that Lebanon’s hospitality will not run out.
From Monday, Lebanon is imposing unprecedented new restrictions on the entry of Syrians, requiring them to provide the length and intention of their stay, in an effort to stem the numbers entering. UNHCR, the UN’s refugee body, fears the measures could mean Syrians fleeing violence in their own country are not allowed across the border.
In pictures: Global refugee crisis
In pictures: Global refugee crisis
1/41 Yemeni refugees
Yemeni refugees carry water to their tent at the Mazraq internally displaced people's camp in the northwestern province of Hajja
2/41 Yemeni refugees
A displaced man from Yemen's Saada province amid UNHCR tents at a camp set up by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Mazraq in Yemen's Hajja region, 360 kms northwest of Sanaa
3/41 Yemeni refugees
Yemeni refugees queue to get food aid at the Marzaq internally displaced people's camp in Harad in the northwestern province of Hajjah
4/41 Yemeni refugees
Displaced Yemenis from al-Jaachan Al-Ansin, a village in the province of Ibb, some 200km South-East of Sanaa, stand next to their tents in a makeshift refugee camp in Sanaa
5/41 Yemeni refugees
Yemeni refugees walk to a refugee camp in the southern Saudi province of Jizan after crossing the border from Yemen into Saudi Arabia
6/41 Syrian refugees
Syrian refugees arrive in Turkey at the Cilvegozu crossing gate of Reyhanli, in Hatay. The number of people driven from their homes by conflict and crisis has topped 50 million for the first time since World War II, with Syrians hardest hit, the UN refugee agency (UNCHR) said, in an annual report released on World Refugee Day
7/41 Syrian refugees
Syrian refugees walking among tents at Karkamis' refugee camp near the town of Gaziantep, south of Turkey
8/41 Sudanese refugees
South Sudanese refugees waiting for food in the Kule refugee camp near the Pagak Border Entry point in the Gambella Region, Ethiopia
9/41 African refugees
African refugees live homelessly at a temporary shelter beside a road on World Refugee Day in Sana'a, Yemen. The number of African refugees who have come to Yemen during the past few years has reached 750,000, most of them are Somalis
10/41 Iraqi refugees
An Iraqi refugee girl from Mosul stands outside her family's tent at Khazir refugee camp outside Irbil, 217 miles (350 kilometers) north of Baghdad, Iraq. The militants' capture of Iraq's cities of Mosul and Tikrit makes their dream of a new Islamic state look more realistic. It already controlled a swath of eastern Syria along the Euphrates River, with a spottier presence extending further west nearly to Aleppo, Syria's largest city. In Raqqa, the biggest city it holds in Syria, it imposes taxes, rebuilds bridges and enforces the law - its strict version of Shariah
11/41 Iraqi refugees
Refugees queue to register at a temporary camp in northern Iraq
12/41 Syrian refugees
A young Syrian refugee stands near jerry cans used to collect water at Al-Zaatri refugee camp in the Jordanian city of Mafraq, near the border with Syria. The United Nations hopes that political talks between the warring sides in Syria will clinch local ceasefires to allow vital food and medicines to reach millions of civilians
13/41 Syrian refugees
A child refugee from the northern province of Raqqa in Syria, reacts from the cold weather in a Syrian refugee camp beside the Lebanese border town of Arsal, in eastern Bekaa Valley
14/41 Syrian refugees
Boys help their father remove snow in front of their tent in the Azaz refugee camp
15/41 Syrian refugees
A Syrian refugee family from Aleppo crosses the Bosphorus from Uskudar to the European side of Istanbul
16/41 Syrian refugees
A child refugee stands next to a home constructed using a billboard in the settlement of Qab Elias in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanon
17/41 Syrian refugees
Refugee baby Rim in the settlement of Qab Elias in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanon
18/41 African refugees
Refugees arriving at a camp near Bossangoa, 190 miles north of Bangui, the capital. Forty-one thousand people fled their homes following mass executions in the area
Juan Carlos Tomasi/Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders
19/41 Syrian refugees
Representatives of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, a deeply divided opposition, world powers and regional bodies started a long-delayed peace conference aimed at bringing an end to a nearly three-year civil war
20/41 Iraqi refugees
A women and a girl wash at a tap at a temporary displacement camp set up next to a Kurdish checkpoint in Kalak. Thousands of people have fled Iraq's second city of Mosul after it was overrun by Isis (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) militants. Many have been temporarily housed at various IDP (internally displaced persons) camps around the region including the area close to Erbil, as they hope to enter the safety of the nearby Kurdish region
21/41 Iraqi refugees
Families arrive at a Kurdish checkpoint next to a temporary displacement camp in Kalak
22/41 Iraqi refugees
An Iraqi refugee girl from Mosul stands outside her family's tent at Khazir refugee camp outside Irbil, 217 miles (350 kilometers) north of Baghdad, Iraq. Days after Iraq's second-largest city fell to Isis fighters, some Iraqis are already returning to Mosul, lured back by insurgents offering cheap gas and food, restoring power and water and removing traffic barricades
23/41 Iraqi refugees
A girl, who fled from the violence in Mosul, carries a case of water at a camp on the outskirts of Arbil in Iraq's Kurdistan region
24/41 Iraqi refugees
A displaced Iraqi woman washes her family's laundry as the children shower outside their tent at a temporary camp set up to shelter civilians fleeing violence in Iraq's northern Nineveh province in Aski kalak, 40 kms west of the Kurdish autonomous region's capital Arbil
25/41 Iraqi refugees
Iraqi refugees from Mosul arrive at Khazir refugee camp outside Irbil, 217 miles (350 kilometers) north of Baghdad
26/41 Sudanese refugees
The international Red Cross said that the road from Bor to the nearby Awerial area 'is lined with thousands of people' waiting for boats so they could cross the Nile River and that the gathering of displaced 'is the largest single identified concentration of displaced people in the country so far'
27/41 Sudanese refugees
People unload the few belongings at Minkammen, that they were able to bring with them to the camps
28/41 Sudanese refugees
Thousands of exhausted civilians are crowding into the fishing village of Minkammen, a once-tiny riverbank settlement of a few thatch huts 25 kilometres (20 miles) southwest of Bor
29/41 Sudanese refugees
Many people had spent days hiding out in the bush outside Bor as gunmen battled for control of the town, which has exchanged hands three times in the conflict, and remains in rebel control
30/41 Sudanese refugees
A young boy pulls his suitcase of belongings as he walks to find a place to rest after getting off a river barge from Bor
31/41 Sudanese refugees
A displaced family camp under a tree providing partial shade from the midday sun
32/41 Sudanese refugees
A boy carries a fish, caught from the nearby Nile river, in a cardboard box on his head back to his relatives to eat
33/41 Sudanese refugees
A mother and her baby, one of the few to have a mosquito net, wake up in the morning after sleeping in the open
34/41 Sudanese refugees
Four-month old Haida Majzub was born in the Ajuong Thok refugee camp inside South Sudan. The camp, in northern Unity State, hosts thousands of refugees from the Nuba Mountains, located across the nearby border with Sudan
35/41 Sudanese refugees
A girl fills a container with muddy water in the Ajuong Thok Refugee Camp
36/41 Sudanese refugees
The clashes in South Sudan began when uniformed personnel opened fire at a meeting of the governing party, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement
37/41 Myanmar refugees
45 year old Dilbhar looks towards the camera as she stands in the Shamalapur Rohingya refugee settlement in Chittagong district. She escaped to Bangladesh from the Bodchara village in the Mondu district of Myanmar
38/41 Myanmar refugees
32 year old Mahada Khatum, 5 year old Hasan Sharif, and 9 year old Umma Kulsum sit outside their home in the Shamalapur Rohingya refugee settlement in Chittagong district. The family escaped violence and discrimination from the Zomgara Baharchara village in the Meherulla district of Myanmar
39/41 Myanmar refugees
Hamid and his daughter Rajama sit inside their home in the Shamalapur Rohingya refugee settlement in Chittagong district. They fled to Bangladesh from the Dhuachopara village in the Rachidhong district of Myanmar
40/41 Afghan refugees
Afghan children wait for relief supplies from the Muslim Hands United For The Needy during an aid distribution at a refugee camp on the outskirts of Kabul
41/41 Afghan refugees
Afghan people carry relief supplies received from the Muslim Hands United For The Needy during an aid distribution at a refugee camp on the outskirts of Kabul
Mohammed Yasin, 61, operates a money exchange business in Masnaa on the border with Syria, a town of 35,000 which has taken in 60,000 refugees. They live in garages, empty buildings and makeshift properties that line the roads, with roofs of tarpaulin and UNHCR tent covers.
Mr Yasin says Syrians are cheating the system; enjoying UNHCR benefits but also competing with Lebanese. “They are working, they are not refugees,” he says.
A Syrian has opened a money exchange business around the corner, which he says has driven his business down 75 per cent because “Syrians buy from Syrians”.
He gestures with his cane. “That’s a Syrian shop,” he says, pointing to a mobile phone shop across the street. “And that one too.”
The residents of Masnaa don’t mind the Syrians, Mr Yasin insists. They are good people, but their presence is taking its toll. The village infrastructure is not equipped for the influx. His rent has tripled. Previously, he received six hours of electricity a day; now that’s a rarity and water is always running out. “We want them to go back, but where to send them?” he asks.
More than 90 per cent of Lebanese surveyed in the Bekaa valley and the north – areas with the largest numbers of refugees – perceive the Syrians as symbolic and economic threats, a March 2014 report found. Charles Harb, a social psychologist at the American University of Beirut who co-authored the report, says recent political developments mean that figure will have risen.
Last August, militants from the al-Qaeda affiliate Jabhat al-Nusra and the emerging Isis overran the Sunni border town of Arsal. When the Lebanese Army reclaimed the town five days later the militants fled into the surrounding mountains, taking almost 30 Lebanese security personnel with them. Four have so far been executed. In October, militants fought the army in the northern city of Tripoli.
In the aftermath of the violence, discrimination again Syrians surged. Informal tented settlements were burnt down. More towns began imposing curfews after they first appeared several months ago. Human Rights Watch estimates that such curfews have now been implemented in at least 45 municipalities.
The UN agrees that Lebanon is at capacity. The number of poor has risen by two-thirds since March 2011 and unemployment has doubled.
In December, the UN and the Lebanese government launched a new £1.38bn plan designed to help host communities, with almost 20 per cent directed to institutional and community support. The UN has also encouraged other countries to take in more Syrian refugees. So far, 28 have pledged to resettle a total 100,000 refugees. The UK has taken in just 90 and has not signed up to the UNHCR resettlement programme.
The UNHCR representative for Lebanon, Ninette Kelley, says the numbers being taken by Western countries is “not in proportion to the burden that is being carried by the host countries. This is the issue.”
Meanwhile, deteriorating circumstances are pushing refugees to return voluntarily, to unknown circumstances. “I will return to Syria,” Abdullah says. “Even if I will have no work there, it will be better.”Reuse content