Finally, the world acts to control the arms trade

Talks begin this week on a global covenant to prevent weapons from falling into the wrong hands

The global arms trade, which produces two bullets for every person on the planet every year and the weapons that kill 1,500 people each day, is facing the first worldwide effort to control it. An unprecedented treaty that would attempt to restrict arms sales is expected to be drawn up at talks in the United Nations this week.

A campaign for such an agreement, begun six years ago by Nobel laureates, faces attempts by the United States and Russia to water the treaty down, but it is likely that a historic deal to control the arms trade will be achieved in some form.

There are currently no worldwide laws to prevent weapons from falling into the wrong hands; indeed, as one French NGO pointed out, there are more legal restrictions on the sale of bananas than there are on arms. But tomorrow negotiators at the UN will begin their final week of talks to agree the terms of the treaty before world leaders gather in July to vote on it. A global agreement to regulate weapons has never been passed before and has not been attempted since before the Second World War.

While the treaty will not stop the so-called "legitimate" trade in weapons, campaigners hope that it will ensure governments do not allow the export of weapons to individuals or nations who might use them to violate human rights. The treaty will put pressure on the UK and other leading arms exporters such as the US, Germany and Russia not to supply weaponry that could be used as a tool of oppression. The issue has come under particular scrutiny in the past year because of the provenance of weapons used in the brutal crackdown by regimes during the Arab Spring.

Many of the weapons that riot police and internal security forces used to suppress and disperse protesters last year in Libya, Bahrain and Egypt were sold and supplied by Russia, the US and the UK. A recent study also found that arms sales from China and Russia were causing serious human rights violations in Darfur, Sudan. Only last week, the US confirmed a $1m deal to send weapons to Bahrain, even as protest in the country continues to be met with police violence.

President Barack Obama has now brought America into the negotiations after the Bush administration voted against them. But the US – along with Russia, China and other exporters – is pushing for the treaty to oblige states only to "take into account" whether there is a risk of violation to human rights, rather than force them to refuse an order if they find a destination country looks likely to misuse weapons.

This is not the only threat to the treaty's strength. There are also pushes to exclude deals arranged by arms brokers and to leave out ammunition, small arms and potentially lethal crowd control devices such as tear gas. Britain was one of the early nations to agree in principle to a treaty under the last government, but critics are concerned by David Cameron's silence on the issue. UK defence exports average about £7bn a year, which equates to 1.8 per cent of the country's total exports and less than half a per cent of the GDP.

Amnesty International UK's director, Kate Allen, said: "David Cameron's silence on this issue is deafening. Tomorrow, the UK government will send its representatives to join others around the world to discuss the nuts and bolts of one of the most important treaties the world will ever see – a treaty that could save literally thousands of lives."

The Foreign Office minister Alistair Burt conceded yesterday that "there would have to be compromises" during the negotiation of the final treaty. But he insisted that the Government was committed to helping deliver a robust agreement. He said: "Securing an arms trade treaty is a priority for this Government and we have made that clear since we came into office. It must be robust. We will not support a weakened treaty. We want it to cover all conventional arms and their munitions." He said he had met a number of NGOs, including Amnesty, last week to discuss the treaty. He added: "We can't reveal our negotiating positions. I told them there would be compromises; there have to be."

Once the treaty is signed, those who do not meet its terms will be liable for prosecution under international law, though it is unclear at this stage exactly how it will be enforced. In practice, experts believe much of the treaty's success is likely to depend on peer pressure. Countries will have to keep comprehensive records and send reports to all other signed-up nations detailing their exports. If they don't comply with the law, it is likely they will become subject to sanctions or other forms of coercion.

Once the treaty is enshrined in law, campaigners believe there will be more political will to use sanctions against countries that don't comply. The courts within countries that disobey the terms of the treaty could have some power too. In the UK, for example, if the Government continued to grant licences for the export of arms to countries with poor human rights records, it could then be subject to a judicial review, which could force the Government to stop.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA special investigation by Andy McSmith
Arts and Entertainment
Books should be for everyone, says Els, 8. Publisher Scholastic now agrees
booksAn eight-year-old saw a pirate book was ‘for boys’ and took on the publishers
Life and Style
Mary Beard received abuse after speaking positively on 'Question Time' about immigrant workers: 'When people say ridiculous, untrue and hurtful things, then I think you should call them out'
tech
Life and Style
Most mail-order brides are thought to come from Thailand, the Philippines and Romania
life
News
i100
Life and Style
tech
Voices
Margaret Thatcher, with her director of publicity Sir Gordon Reece, who helped her and the Tory Party to victory in 1979
voicesThe subject is being celebrated by the V&A museum, triggering some happy memories for former PR man DJ Taylor
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Installation and Service / Security Engineer

£22000 - £40000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This company is part of a Group...

Recruitment Genius: Service Charge Accounts Assistant

£16000 - £18000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Are you a a young, dynamic pers...

Cancer Research UK: Corporate Partnerships Volunteer Events Coordinator – London

Voluntary: Cancer Research UK: We’re looking for someone to support our award ...

Ashdown Group: Head of IT - Hertfordshire - £90,000

£70000 - £90000 per annum + bonus + car allowance + benefits: Ashdown Group: H...

Day In a Page

General Election 2015: Chuka Umunna on the benefits of immigration, humility – and his leader Ed Miliband

Chuka Umunna: A virus of racism runs through Ukip

The shadow business secretary on the benefits of immigration, humility – and his leader Ed Miliband
Yemen crisis: This exotic war will soon become Europe's problem

Yemen's exotic war will soon affect Europe

Terrorism and boatloads of desperate migrants will be the outcome of the Saudi air campaign, says Patrick Cockburn
Marginal Streets project aims to document voters in the run-up to the General Election

Marginal Streets project documents voters

Independent photographers Joseph Fox and Orlando Gili are uploading two portraits of constituents to their website for each day of the campaign
Game of Thrones: Visit the real-life kingdom of Westeros to see where violent history ends and telly tourism begins

The real-life kingdom of Westeros

Is there something a little uncomfortable about Game of Thrones shooting in Northern Ireland?
How to survive a social-media mauling, by the tough women of Twitter

How to survive a Twitter mauling

Mary Beard, Caroline Criado-Perez, Louise Mensch, Bunny La Roche and Courtney Barrasford reveal how to trounce the trolls
Gallipoli centenary: At dawn, the young remember the young who perished in one of the First World War's bloodiest battles

At dawn, the young remember the young

A century ago, soldiers of the Empire – many no more than boys – spilt on to Gallipoli’s beaches. On this 100th Anzac Day, there are personal, poetic tributes to their sacrifice
Dissent is slowly building against the billions spent on presidential campaigns – even among politicians themselves

Follow the money as never before

Dissent is slowly building against the billions spent on presidential campaigns – even among politicians themselves, reports Rupert Cornwell
Samuel West interview: The actor and director on austerity, unionisation, and not mentioning his famous parents

Samuel West interview

The actor and director on austerity, unionisation, and not mentioning his famous parents
General Election 2015: Imagine if the leading political parties were fashion labels

Imagine if the leading political parties were fashion labels

Fashion editor, Alexander Fury, on what the leaders' appearances tell us about them
Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka: Home can be the unsafest place for women

Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka: Home can be the unsafest place for women

The architect of the HeForShe movement and head of UN Women on the world's failure to combat domestic violence
Public relations as 'art'? Surely not

Confessions of a former PR man

The 'art' of public relations is being celebrated by the V&A museum, triggering some happy memories for DJ Taylor
Bill Granger recipes: Our chef succumbs to his sugar cravings with super-luxurious sweet treats

Bill Granger's luxurious sweet treats

Our chef loves to stop for 30 minutes to catch up on the day's gossip, while nibbling on something sweet
London Marathon 2015: Paula Radcliffe and the mother of all goodbyes

The mother of all goodbyes

Paula Radcliffe's farewell to the London Marathon will be a family affair
Everton vs Manchester United: Steven Naismith demands 'better' if Toffees are to upset the odds against United

Steven Naismith: 'We know we must do better'

The Everton forward explains the reasons behind club's decline this season
Arsenal vs Chelsea: Praise to Arsene Wenger for having the courage of his convictions

Michael Calvin's Last Word

Praise to Wenger for having the courage of his convictions