Western oil firms face Central Asia's political minefield

Some analysts say Central Asia is the next Middle East. Turkmenistan has 21,000 billion cubic metres of gas, the third largest reserve in the world. Neighbouring Uzbekistan has comparable amounts of gas, while the oil reserves of Kazakhastan and Azerbaijan are legends in the industry.

However, these countries have a problem: how to get their products to market. It is partly a question of technology and money; but just as important are the politics, pitting Russia against Iran, and drawing in the Western powers and their oil and gas companies.

This was the central dilemma preoccupying the heads of seven Central Asian states, plus Turkey, Iran and Pakistan, who gathered under the aegis of ECO (Economic Co-operation Organisation) in Ashkabad to discuss how best to capitalise on the region's enormous reserves of oil and gas.

The existing pipelines of all the former Soviet states naturally go north towards Russia, which is unable, or unwilling, to pay the full price for their products. Since 1993, moreover, Russia has severely limited the amount of oil and gas passing through its territory in order to protect its own exports. None of the alternative routes is easy, since the region is mostly land- locked.

One possibility is to go due east to Japan, but the cost of laying a pipe across the whole of China makes it unlikely. West across the Caspian Sea is a better bet, though tanker transportation costs are prohibitive at $60 (pounds 38) a ton; which is the reason for a proposed oil pipe-line under the Caspian Sea from the giant Kazakh oil field of Tenghiz to Baku, through Georgia or Armenia to Turkey.

On Tuesday, however, before curtailing his visit to tend to the earthquake at home, Iran's President Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani trumped everyone by reviving a plan for a line running due south through Turkmenistan and eastern Iran to the deep sea terminal at Bandar Abbas on the Persian Gulf. This is the best and shortest route of them all: it is a rule of thumb in the pipeline business that the fewer borders you have to cross to get to market, the better. Western oil companies would have looked into the Iran option long ago were it not for the small matter of US sanctions against companies doing business with Iran.

"There's no question about it," says James Dorian, an energy specialist with the Asian Development Bank. "If sanctions were lifted you'd instantly see a mass migration south- wards of investors. Indirectly, Russia has benefited a great deal from US policy in the region."

There is another chance for the big Western companies, however. High on the agenda at ECO was a fourth export possibility, the pipeline route south through Afghanistan to the lucrative markets of Pakistan and beyond. The Texas-based company Unocal, in a consortium with the Saudi company Delta, are proposing a $2bn gas line as soon as hostilities in Afghani- stan cease. They are also planning a $2.5bn oil line.

The plan is problematic, to say the least. Critics say that Unocal's alliance with the Saudis, ideologically the closest to the fundamentalist Taliban, who control two-thirds of Afghani-stan, through which any line must pass, amounts to blatant political interference. Unocal insists that when they teamed up with Delta they had never even heard of the Taliban.

"Unocal is the leader of the consortium and we operate a policy of strict political neutrality," says Marty Miller, the company's vice president for new ventures in Central Asia. "We expect our partners to do the same."

But politics and business cannot always be separated. While the ousted Afghan president, Burhanuddin Rabbani, was invited by Turkmenistan to the ECO meeting, the Taliban were not. This week, the fundamentalists complained bitterly - in a statement they said they were the "real representatives" of Afghanistan. They specifically accused Iran of prolonging the Afghan war by supporting the Taliban's northern enemies, simply so that the pipeline might be built through their country instead.

Unocal's other difficulty is that although the Talibans want a pipeline, they don't seem to want Unocal's pipeline. This week, via Radio Shari'ah in Kabul, the fundamentalists backed the bid of a rival gas line project, run by "the famous Argentine company" Bridas. The Argentinians are prepared to start work on the line even before hostilities in Afghanistan has ceased, and the Taliban have gone for the bait. Unocal say such a risk is simply not acceptable to its shareholders. Bridas, meanwhile, are suing Unocal for "tortuous interference" in their business.

Watching this soap opera with particular attention are the Russians, half of whose export revenues have always come from oil and gas and who have the most to lose from the successful establishment of alternative routes.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksAn introduction to the ground rules of British democracy
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
SPONSORED FEATURES
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Senior Environmental Adviser - Maternity Cover

£37040 - £43600 per annum: Recruitment Genius: The UK's export credit agency a...

Recruitment Genius: CBM & Lubrication Technician

£25000 - £27500 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This company provides a compreh...

Recruitment Genius: Care Worker - Residential Emergency Service

£16800 - £19500 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Would you like to join an organ...

Recruitment Genius: Senior Landscaper

£25000 - £28000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: In the last five years this com...

Day In a Page

The long walk west: they fled war in Syria, only to get held up in Hungary – now hundreds of refugees have set off on foot for Austria

They fled war in Syria...

...only to get stuck and sidetracked in Hungary
From The Prisoner to Mad Men, elaborate title sequences are one of the keys to a great TV series

Title sequences: From The Prisoner to Mad Men

Elaborate title sequences are one of the keys to a great TV series. But why does the art form have such a chequered history?
Giorgio Armani Beauty's fabric-inspired foundations: Get back to basics this autumn

Giorgio Armani Beauty's foundations

Sumptuous fabrics meet luscious cosmetics for this elegant look
From stowaways to Operation Stack: Life in a transcontinental lorry cab

Life from the inside of a trucker's cab

From stowaways to Operation Stack, it's a challenging time to be a trucker heading to and from the Continent
Kelis interview: The songwriter and sauce-maker on cooking for Pharrell and crying over potatoes

Kelis interview

The singer and sauce-maker on cooking for Pharrell
Refugee crisis: David Cameron lowered the flag for the dead king of Saudi Arabia - will he do the same honour for little Aylan Kurdi?

Cameron lowered the flag for the dead king of Saudi Arabia...

But will he do the same honour for little Aylan Kurdi, asks Robert Fisk
Our leaders lack courage in this refugee crisis. We are shamed by our European neighbours

Our leaders lack courage in this refugee crisis. We are shamed by our European neighbours

Humanity must be at the heart of politics, says Jeremy Corbyn
Joe Biden's 'tease tour': Could the US Vice-President be testing the water for a presidential run?

Joe Biden's 'tease tour'

Could the US Vice-President be testing the water for a presidential run?
Britain's 24-hour culture: With the 'leisured society' a distant dream we're working longer and less regular hours than ever

Britain's 24-hour culture

With the 'leisured society' a distant dream we're working longer and less regular hours than ever
Diplomacy board game: Treachery is the way to win - which makes it just like the real thing

The addictive nature of Diplomacy

Bullying, betrayal, aggression – it may be just a board game, but the family that plays Diplomacy may never look at each other in the same way again
Lady Chatterley's Lover: Racy underwear for fans of DH Lawrence's equally racy tome

Fashion: Ooh, Lady Chatterley!

Take inspiration from DH Lawrence's racy tome with equally racy underwear
8 best children's clocks

Tick-tock: 8 best children's clocks

Whether you’re teaching them to tell the time or putting the finishing touches to a nursery, there’s a ticker for that
Charlie Austin: Queens Park Rangers striker says ‘If the move is not right, I’m not going’

Charlie Austin: ‘If the move is not right, I’m not going’

After hitting 18 goals in the Premier League last season, the QPR striker was the great non-deal of transfer deadline day. But he says he'd preferred another shot at promotion
Isis profits from destruction of antiquities by selling relics to dealers - and then blowing up the buildings they come from to conceal the evidence of looting

How Isis profits from destruction of antiquities

Robert Fisk on the terrorist group's manipulation of the market to increase the price of artefacts
Labour leadership: Andy Burnham urges Jeremy Corbyn voters to think again in last-minute plea

'If we lose touch we’ll end up with two decades of the Tories'

In an exclusive interview, Andy Burnham urges Jeremy Corbyn voters to think again in last-minute plea