In the shadow of the Shard: Why the next generation of skycrapers is struggling to get off the ground

view gallery VIEW GALLERY

The Shard already dominates the capital's skyline and Liverpool, Brighton, Glasgow and east London are next in line for the tower treatment. Or are they?

Even as the mighty Shard on the banks of the Thames shoots towards its opening in May, plans for tall buildings from London to Liverpool are being knocked down as opposition grows to the tall, the ostentatious, the showy and "iconic". And the people knocking Britain's new towers back are not necessarily traditional conservatives and architectural purists, but young activists and many people usually associated with the avant-garde.

Last year, architect Amanda Levete's 25-storey tower in Shoreditch, east London was set to rise from the Huntingdon Estate, overlooking downtown's favourite edgy backwater, Redchurch Street, but was knocked back by a group of highly motivated residents including a clutch of high-profile artists, Misses Emin and Whiteread among them. More recently, a plan for a so-called eco-tower next to Dalston's Kingsland station – the hipster hub of east London – has just been repelled until further notice. With 130 flats, and fashionable accoutrements such as vertical gardens, it was designed by architects BFLS, which designed the now-familiar Strata tower in Elephant and Castle. In south London, two towers in the Vauxhall Cross development have been nixed for now, following ardent campaigning.

And the pro-low phenomenon is not just restricted to London. In Liverpool, the Liverpool Waters development, currently the UK's biggest planning application including a scraper of considerable height, has been set back following local opposition and has even raised the objection of Unesco (the city's Maritime Mercantile City is a World Heritage Site), which cited the possibility of a "serious loss of historical authenticity". There has been similar disquiet in Scotland, at the second phase of high-rise developments in the Glasgow Harbour site.

In one sense, these buildings are seen as out of time – signed off in the boom, built in the bust – and also out of place, particularly in classic four-storey Victorian streetscapes such as Dalston's. "It is inappropriate to the area, and full of 'greenwash'," says Bill Parry-Davies of Open Dalston, a group that campaigned against the tower, who says that nearby Waltham Forest has also had a similar application beside its station, indicating a trend. Parry-Davies is pleased, therefore, that Hackney Planning Committee recently rejected the exclusively private 18-storey tower block, where apartments rose from about £400,000 into six-figure sums.

Part of the wider problem is that whereas in the past tower blocks were for the poor, these iterations are mostly for the luxury market, aiming to attract investment money from overseas and therefore divorced from locality. "Tall buildings are socially divisive," says Michael Ball of the Waterloo Community Development Group, which has recently acted against two towers in the Vauxhall Cross area: Bondway, by Make architects, and the so-called Kylun. "The only people they please are developers and some of the architectural lobby." Recently, Sir Richard Rogers said London should build up, and that the Shard wouldn't be worse were it to be "10 storeys higher... It's the human scale of buildings that makes them work, not the height or width." Which is fine if it is responsible, but, as Ball adds, such developments are often there to soften up areas for further planning applications. If they fail, then something else will work and in any case, the site will appreciate from the planning work done. "It's happened at the site of the old Sainsbury's building in Blackfriars," Ball says. Hence the well-founded distrust.

The new generation of residential blocks is being delivered on the promise of creating greater density, to follow the mantra of "build up, not out", so local authorities are more likely to sign off tall buildings if they make the right environmental noises. "This equation is just not correct," Ball says. "The densest part of London is St John's Wood, because of mansion blocks. This is the architectural type that is going to create more housing for more people." In any case, he adds, most of the new blocks are for luxury flats, so they don't even have the benefit of the earlier generation of tower blocks, which at least attempted to create housing for the working classes.

But is this a new kind of neo-nimbyism, dressed up in social concern? The book Triumph of the City by Edward Glaeser, a favourite of British metropolitan authorities, suggests that objectors are a modern manifestation of the arguments developed by the seer of urbanism, urban-planning activist Jane Jacobs, driven to protect local areas against developers but ultimately raising local land values to their own benefit. "There can be an urban future where more people live in central cities, but to do that, the most desirable of those cities must reduce the regulatory barriers that limit the construction of taller buildings," he writes. It's a moot point, but this argument, along with the supposed ecological and density benefits of taller buildings, constitutes the more progressive of the counter-claims. "Maybe there's an argument that the recent generation of tower blocks are for the rich," says James Newman of the website Skyscraper News. "But I'd argue that it's important to have inclusive design, and in some ways, the newer buildings often do, with street-level activity designed in, as well as restaurants. The Shard even has a non-denominational meditation suite at the top. Tall buildings should be participatory as well as good-looking." Newman cites One Brighton, a high-density development in the seaside city with rooftop allotments, as a good example.

Developers and estate agents tend to concur, and make the argument more forcefully yet. "The arguments for such policies [of allowing tall residential buildings] are compelling," says Nigel Abbott of the estate agents Cluttons. "Taller buildings maximise available space in congested cities, and as we are suffering a severe housing shortage, it's little wonder that there are plans to build into the sky." And the way to make them work is to insist on good design and consideration to surroundings, Abbott says. "Properties then stand a better chance of being given the green light and will help bat-back those who oppose development," he adds.

Some in the architectural world agree, with the proviso that good design sugars the high-rise pill. "Most people are by nature nimbys, and anything tall seems to be the ideal target for that sort of criticism," says William Murray, director of Wordsearch, an architectural marketing agency. "I don't think that objections are necessarily a bad thing, if they can be channelled constructively into providing better buildings. We also mustn't assume that everything tall, new and shiny is necessarily good." Some are excellent, says Murray – he cites Feilden Clegg's Broadcasting Tower in Leeds – and some are bad. "For example, I think the London skyline would be a lot better off if there had been a few more objections to the Broadway Malyan St George's Wharf Tower and the Strata in Southwark."

Bob Robinson, chairman at planning company DPP, says that the recent objections are the latest in a process of disenchantment that has been gathering pace since the mid-2000s, and which has since been proved demographically wanting. "There was a boom then that led to the towers in Manchester and Leeds, some of which are in distress", Robinson says, adding that this housing model targeted one- and two-bedroom flats that failed to cater for wider family need. "Buyers are now trapped in these things," he says. "They get into their thirties and want to move out or bring children up somewhere at street level, and can't sell them."

More generally, Robinson reckons that tall buildings are having a hard time because they're simply not part of this era's mood music. "They're seen as ego statements, part of the mega-bonus culture. They are seen as wrong for the time." There's even a theory called the "skyscraper index", advanced by economist Andrew Lawrence, that tall buildings are harbingers of economic doom. Ominous and vulgar? No wonder people want to cut tall buildings down to size.

News
peopleTop Gear presenter and all-round controversialist is at it again
Life & Style
techHow a 'grey brick' took over the world of portable gaming
Sport
Aaron Ramsey celebrates after opening the scoring in Arsenal's win over Hull `
sport
News
peopleActress speaks out against historic sexual assault claims, saying things have 'gone quite far now'

VIDEO
Sport
Luis Suarez celebrates after scoring in Liverpool's 3-2 win over Norwich
sport Another hurdle is out of the way for Brendan Rodgers' side
News
Portrait of Queen Elizabeth-II by David Bailey which has been released to mark her 88th birthday
peoplePortrait released to mark monarch's 88th birthday
Arts & Entertainment
The star of the sitcom ‘Miranda’ is hugely popular with mainstream audiences
TVMiranda Hart lined up for ‘Generation Game’ revival
Life & Style
The writer, Gerda Saunders, with her mother, who also suffered with dementia before her death
healthGerda Saunders on the most formidable effect of her dementia
Arts & Entertainment
Last, but by no means least, is Tommy Cooper and the fez. This style of hat became a permanent trademark of his act.
comedyNot Like That, Like This centres on alleged domestic abuse
Property search
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition iPad app?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Geography Teacher

£130 - £140 per day: Randstad Education Ilford: Secondary Geography Teacher Lo...

Do you want to work in Education?

£55 - £70 per day: Randstad Education Cheshire: Are you a dynamic and energeti...

SEN Teaching Assistant

Negotiable: Randstad Education Group: SEN TAs, LSAs and Support Workers needed...

Private Client Senior Manager - Sheffield

£50000 - £60000 per annum: Pro-Recruitment Group: The Sheffield office of this...

Day In a Page

Rubin ‘Hurricane’ Carter: The man who could have been champion of the world - and the Bob Dylan song that immortalised him

The man who could have been champion of the world

Rubin ‘Hurricane’ Carter and the Bob Dylan song that immortalised him
Didn’t she do well?

Didn’t she do well?

Miranda Hart lined up for ‘Generation Game’ revival
The Middle East we must confront in the future will be a Mafiastan ruled by money

The Middle East we must confront in the future will be a Mafiastan ruled by money

In Iraq, mafiosi already run almost the entire oil output of the south of the country
Before they were famous

Before they were famous

Can you guess the celebrity from these British Pathe News clips?
Martin Freeman’s casting in Fargo is genius

Martin Freeman’s casting in Fargo is a stroke of genius

Series is brimming with characters and stories all its own
How I brokered a peace deal with Robert Mugabe: Roy Agyemang reveals the delicate diplomacy needed to get Zimbabwe’s President to sit down with the BBC

How I brokered a peace deal with Robert Mugabe

Roy Agyemang reveals the delicate diplomacy needed to get Zimbabwe’s President to sit down with the BBC
Video of British Muslims dancing to Pharrell Williams's hit Happy attacked as 'sinful'

British Muslims's Happy video attacked as 'sinful'

The four-minute clip by Honesty Policy has had more than 300,000 hits on YouTube
Church of England-raised Michael Williams describes the unexpected joys in learning about his family's Jewish faith

Michael Williams: Do as I do, not as I pray

Church of England-raised Williams describes the unexpected joys in learning about his family's Jewish faith
A History of the First World War in 100 moments: A visit to the Front Line by the Prime Minister's wife

A History of the First World War in 100 moments

A visit to the Front Line by the Prime Minister's wife
Comedian Jenny Collier: 'Sexism I experienced on stand-up circuit should be extinct'

Jenny Collier: 'Sexism on stand-up circuit should be extinct'

The comedian's appearance at a show on the eve of International Women's Day was cancelled because they had "too many women" on the bill
Cannes Film Festival: Ken Loach and Mike Leigh to fight it out for the Palme d'Or

Cannes Film Festival

Ken Loach and Mike Leigh to fight it out for the Palme d'Or
The concept album makes surprise top ten return with neolithic opus from Jethro Tull's Ian Anderson

The concept album makes surprise top ten return

Neolithic opus from Jethro Tull's Ian Anderson is unexpected success
Lichen is the surprise new ingredient on fine-dining menus, thanks to our love of Scandinavian and Indian cuisines

Lichen is surprise new ingredient on fine-dining menus

Emily Jupp discovers how it can give a unique, smoky flavour to our cooking
10 best baking books

10 best baking books

Planning a spot of baking this bank holiday weekend? From old favourites to new releases, here’s ten cookbooks for you
Jury still out on Manchester City boss Manuel Pellegrini

Jury still out on Pellegrini

Draw with Sunderland raises questions over Manchester City manager's ability to motivate and unify his players