Third-placed Gloucestershire responded by reaching 253 for 5 off 66 overs and their overall success was achieved in the absence of their leading wicket-taker, Mike Smith, who is on England duty.
The Tasmanian all-rounder Shaun Young filled the gap as he sent back openers Jon Lewis and Mike Roseberry in his first six overs.
But on a College Ground wicket with more bounce than is generally found on the first class circuit it was the Gloucestershire captain, Mark Alleyne, who demoralised Durham.
A 12-ball spell brought him the wickets of John Morris, David Boon and Nick Speak for three runs and he finished with 5 for 14 in 8.2 overs. Morris was top scorer with six fours in his 32 but Boon, out for a duck, has scored just 18 in his last six innings.
There was some early morning swing but poor technique saw the innings collapse in 35.2 overs. It was a pitch which called for concentration, something Gloucestershire opener Matt Windows went on to provide in his first Championship game of the season.
He batted just under three hours for 75 including 15 fours before edging through to wicketkeeper Martin Speight.
Gloucestershire did not have everything their own way and lost their first three wickets for 28. But Windows and Shaun Young put on 100 in 100 minutes and took their fourth-wicket stand to 116.
Andrew Flintoff, in his last match before leading the England Under- 19 side against Zimbabwe, scored his maiden century for Lancashire against Hampshire at Southampton.
Flintoff, 19, hit 117 and shared in a stand of 214 for the fifth wicket with his captain, Mike Watkinson. Watkinson ended the day with an unbeaten 102 - his first century for two years - and young Nathan Wood and Graham Lloyd also came close to centuries.
Wood hit a career-best 82 and Lloyd made 90, before both were caught in the deep off Shaun Udal.
Hampshire, after losing the toss, were on the wrong end of some heavy punishment as Lancashire closed the first day at 423 for 5 from 104 overs.
Hampshire had early success when Jason Gallian and Neil Fairbrother were both out with only 33 scored but then Wood and Lloyd, sons of 1970s Lancashire heroes Barry and David, put on 158 in 38 overs.Reuse content