The 25-year-old from Trinidad has a stress fracture in his lower back and has been ordered by a specialist in Derby to take a complete rest.
He will miss this winter's Test series against England and Derbyshire now face the rest of the season without an overseas player.
Bishop, who has had back trouble for more than two years, broke down during last month's second Test match against Pakistan in Barbados but the problem was diagnosed as muscular although a scan taken in the West Indies showed a fracture.
The Derbyshire chief executive, Bob Lark, said: 'We find it hard to understand how such a serious injury could be diagnosed as an inflamed muscle.'
The county's general committee meet next week to discuss the situation, but Lark added: 'We shall be writing to the West Indies Board expressing our dismay at the way this has been handled.'
Michael Atherton's back injury could not overshadow a good day for Lancashire against Cambridge University at Fenner's yesterday.
Atherton, captaining the county, looked certain to score his third century of the season when he retired with a back muscle injury with 91. His opening partner, Gehan Mendis, hit his first century for two years batting 234 minutes, hitting 10 fours from 210 balls. He shared a 173-run partnership with Atherton as Lancashire reached 342 for 3.
Middlesex became the third county to be dismissed by Oxford University this season, making 235 with Rob MacDonald finishing with 5 for 20. The Dark Blues reached stumps at 37 for 1.Reuse content