India lost five wickets for just 19 runs as Australia enjoyed a fruitful second session on day three of the second Test in Hyderabad.
The hosts had been in control at lunch with Cheteshwar Pujara making 204 as they looked odds-on to extend their lead in the four-Test series to 2-0.
However, after resuming after lunch at 400 for three, they then suffered a collapse that included the loss of four wickets for seven runs to end on 503 all out.
Glenn Maxwell finished with four for 127 and although India are still in a very strong position with a lead of 266 runs, it is not as authoritative as it possibly could have been.
Pujara and Murali Vijay (167) had extended their partnership for another hour and a half this morning to post India's best-ever second-wicket stand of 370 before Australia's bowlers finally found success.
A couple of fours from Vijay off one Maxwell over took the partnership past 350, then Pujara eased two off his pads to reach 1,000 Test runs in just his 11th match.
The pair were batting with such ease it was a major surprise when Maxwell claimed his first Test wicket, Vijay caught by Ed Cowan at leg slip to end India's fourth-highest partnership for any wicket.
The crowd roared to welcome Sachin Tendulkar to the crease, and he was on hand to congratulate Pujara when he advanced down the wicket to hit Maxwell for four and reach 200 for the second time in Test cricket.
Soon the Australian fielders were congratulating him too as he walked off the field having been caught in the deep by Xavier Doherty when he aimed a hook shot at a James Pattinson bouncer but could not keep it down.
After returning from lunch at 400 for three, the hosts had only added four more runs when Tendulkar was contentiously out for just seven.
The third umpire ruled the India legend had got a touch on a Pattinson delivery which then went through to wicketkeeper Matthew Wade.
Australia made a breakthrough when they took the wicket of Mahendra Singh Dhoni after a quickfire 44.
Dhoni fired a fierce shot off a Maxwell delivery which did not have the required height and which was taken by Doherty at mid-off - although he had to have two attempts at grabbing the ball.
Dhoni's 44 came off 43 deliveries and included eight boundaries.
Maxwell then enjoyed more success when he removed Ravindra Jadeja caught and bowled, and Australia made further inroads with just one more run scored with spinner Doherty taking out Ravichandran Ashwin, caught at gully by Phil Hughes having made just one.
Harbhajan Singh became Doherty's second victim with just four more on the board when he hit a ball straight down to Maxwell to go for a duck.
India's tail continued to crumble with Virat Kohli the next to go when he got an inside edge to a Maxwell delivery and Cowan dived to his left to pluck the ball out of the air.
Kohli had made a patient 34 off 92 balls.
India's innings was then brought to an end when Bhuvneshwar Kumar was stumped for 10.