In the wake of Europol investigation into gambling syndicates, just how fixed is European football?

With Europol’s match-fixing revelations said to be the “tip of the iceberg”, Robin Scott-Elliot speaks to those trying to stem the tide of corruption

“This is,” suggested Friedhelm Althans, the chief investigator of the Bochum police in Germany, “the tip of the iceberg.”

It may only have been the tip of that iceberg exposed but it still made it a day to savour for Althans, a tall, chatty man with immaculate English, who has driven his investigation into match-fixing from his offices in a small Ruhr city to global attention. What began as an inquiry into the  fixing of fourth-tier domestic matches is now an international inquiry, taking in 15 countries around the world and more than 400 suspects. His lonely crusade has now found an international following.

It is Althans who speaks for Europol’s Operation Veto, a well-meaning cooperation between five European countries to try and combat what they – and many others – regard as a growing threat to the integrity of football in Europe and abroad, and at levels from regional leagues in Europe’s lesser footballing nations up to the Champions League and international football.

The bread and butter is what Althans began with, the fixing of three German fourth division games. It earned, according to the German authorities, those who arranged it a profit of €250,000 (£215,000). From there it has mushroomed; 79 suspect games in Turkey, 70 in Germany, 41 in Switzerland, 20 in Hungary, 19 in Belgium and all the way down to one in England. It represents, as Rob Wainwright, head of Europol, himself pointed out, a small percentage of professional games played in the time frame under investigation, roughly since 2009, but it is there and it is growing.

“We recognise the problem continues,” said Wainwright. “Criminal syndicates see this as a high-profit, low-risk area for criminal activity.”

It fell to Althans to outline the task that confronts the authorities, be they footballing or law enforcement. “One fixed match involves up to 50 suspects in 10 countries,” he explained. “Police coordination is nearly impossible and it is difficult to collect evidence.”

There are many other difficulties facing Althans and his associates. Where he is checked by borders and boundaries, the fixers, in particular one syndicate believed to operate out of Singapore and the Far East, are not. Evidence is difficult to obtain – wire-tapping has been the most productive source – and even more difficult to turn into a case strong enough to convince prosecutors to go to court. Criminal liability differs widely from country to country. It is as expensive a business to police as it is a profitable one for the fixers to arrange.

On a grey day at Europol’s uber-modern HQ in The Hague, Althans and Wainwright were joined by policemen from Finland, Slovenia and Hungary, the roll call from Europe’s outer nations in itself significant. This is the way in for the fixers, on the fringes. Take Hungary; four referees were arrested in 2011 and €320,000 in cash discovered on accompanying raids. Referees are an easy target, particularly in countries where they are poorly paid. The sums the Hungarians believe are offered to officials range from €40,000 to €600,000 to fix a game. The highest bribe uncovered by Althans’ investigation was €140,000 paid to fix an Austrian Bundesliga match between Kapfenburg and Austria Wien – the maximum profit they found on one game is €700,000, again in the Austrian league. It is a healthy return.

The Hungarians currently have in custody Wilson Raj Perumal, a Singaporean already convicted of match-fixing by a Finnish court. Perumal is believed to have helped fix games via Hungarian organisers,  including an Under-20 match between Argentina and Bolivia that was settled by a dubious penalty awarded in the 12th minute of injury time.

The trail from Perumal leads to a man called Tan Seet Eng, also known as Dan Tan, another Singaporean. An international arrest warrant has been issued for Tan – he is wanted in Italy and Hungary – but the Singaporean authorities are yet to act on it. Gianni Baldi, Interpol’s head of criminal organisations and part of Operation Veto, said: “This is not a quick matter – these are complicated investigations. We are working with the Singapore authorities.”

Interpol has its own match-fixing task force, of which the UK is a member, but it is Operation Veto that has given dramatic fresh impetus to what is widely regarded as a deep-rooted threat to the game’s integrity. Althans said there is evidence that Tan was involved with attempts to fix a Premier League game as far back as 1999.

It remains a threat that will largely flirt around the edges of the top leagues – although Serie A has not proved immune and Tan is suspected of involvement in the latest fixing scandal that led to the Juventus coach Antonio Conte, among others, serving a ban for not passing on information to the authorities (he continues to deny any wrongdoing). It will, to an extent, be a relief to the likes of Althans that two such high-profile fixtures, those two from the Champions League, one in England, have been discovered as it raises the profile of their cause. It is down among the makeweights, the roots of the European game, that the widest threat lies; but it is spreading – 41 suspicious games in the Swiss league, 18 in Croatia, the list gets longer each year.

At junior level too it is a broadening problem through the increasing number of under-age international fixtures now played. Fifa’s former head of security, Chris Eaton, told The Independent two years ago that he had evidence of young players being caught up in the fixers’ webs early in their careers. They are paid small sums at first, then helped to find clubs in Europe, at first in Europe’s peripheral leagues, and then it’s payback time. Eaton described it as, in effect, “trafficking”. Player awareness is a key feature of attempts by football authorities to combat the spread of such practices.

The numbers revealed by Europol are striking – and also difficult to break down. Some of the matches have already involved prosecutions and convictions, others are still at the suspicious stage. There was an element of smoke and mirrors in The Hague, a body highlighting its worth, but for all that this is a real and present danger to football. Althans expects more countries to become involved, yesterday suggesting the Netherlands as a likely addition to a lengthening list.

“This is an integrity issue,” said Wainwright. “It goes to the very heart of the game, the fabric of what sport is.” Or as Altans put it: “We can’t let citizens, the public, athletes lose trust in sport.”

Past scandals: Fixing’s roll of shame

Italy 2006

Juventus were relegated to Serie B and were stripped of their two Serie A titles from 2005 and 2006 for their involvement in Italy’s “Calciopoli” scandal. A number of teams, but most notably Juventus and their general manager Luciano Moggi, were found guilty of rigging games by selecting favourable referees.

Germany 2005

In 2005, a €2m match-fixing scandal centred on German referee Robert Hoyzer, who confessed to trying to fix matches for Croatian crime syndicates. One German Cup game, in which Hamburg lost 4-2 to Paderborn, included two dubious penalties, while Emile Mpenza was sent off for protesting. Hoyzer went to prison for two years.

Brazil 2005

Referee Edilson Pereira de Carvalho was banned for life in October 2005 for favouring sides in Brazil’s top-flight in return for a fee. Eleven games had to be replayed.

France 1993

Marseilles president Bernard Tapie bribed Valenciennes into throwing a French league game in 1993, allowing Marseilles to win the title and giving them more time to concentrate on the European Cup final against Milan, which they won. Marseilles were stripped of their Ligue 1 title, relegated and Tapie eventually went to prison.

Suggested Topics
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Money
Welcome to tinsel town: retailers such as Selfridges will be Santa's little helpers this Christmas, working hard to persuade shoppers to stock up on gifts
news
News
i100
News
people
Arts and Entertainment
Architect Frank Gehry is regarded by many as the most important architect of the modern era
arts + entsGehry has declared that 98 per cent of modern architecture is "s**t"
Arts and Entertainment
Soul singer Sam Smith cleared up at the Mobo awards this week
arts + entsSam Smith’s Mobo triumph is just the latest example of a trend
Caption competition
Caption competition
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

Bleacher Report

Daily Quiz
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

Day In a Page

Wilko Johnson, now the bad news: musician splits with manager after police investigate assault claims

Wilko Johnson, now the bad news

Former Dr Feelgood splits with manager after police investigate assault claims
Mark Udall: The Democrat Senator with a fight on his hands ahead of the US midterm elections

Mark Udall: The Democrat Senator with a fight on his hands

The Senator for Colorado is for gay rights, for abortion rights – and in the Republicans’ sights as they threaten to take control of the Senate next month
New discoveries show more contact between far-flung prehistoric humans than had been thought

New discoveries show more contact between far-flung prehistoric humans than had been thought

Evidence found of contact between Easter Islanders and South America
Cerys Matthews reveals how her uncle taped 150 interviews for a biography of Dylan Thomas

Cerys Matthews on Dylan Thomas

The singer reveals how her uncle taped 150 interviews for a biography of the famous Welsh poet
DIY is not fun and we've finally realised this as a nation

Homebase closures: 'DIY is not fun'

Homebase has announced the closure of one in four of its stores. Nick Harding, who never did know his awl from his elbow, is glad to see the back of DIY
The Battle of the Five Armies: Air New Zealand releases new Hobbit-inspired in-flight video

Air New Zealand's wizard in-flight video

The airline has released a new Hobbit-inspired clip dubbed "The most epic safety video ever made"
Pumpkin spice is the flavour of the month - but can you stomach the sweetness?

Pumpkin spice is the flavour of the month

The combination of cinnamon, clove, nutmeg (and no actual pumpkin), now flavours everything from lattes to cream cheese in the US
11 best sonic skincare brushes

11 best sonic skincare brushes

Forget the flannel - take skincare to the next level by using your favourite cleanser with a sonic facial brush
Paul Scholes column: I'm not worried about Manchester United's defence - Chelsea test can be the making of Phil Jones and Marcos Rojo

Paul Scholes column

I'm not worried about Manchester United's defence - Chelsea test can be the making of Jones and Rojo
Frank Warren: Boxing has its problems but in all my time I've never seen a crooked fight

Frank Warren: Boxing has its problems but in all my time I've never seen a crooked fight

While other sports are stalked by corruption, we are an easy target for the critics
Jamie Roberts exclusive interview: 'I'm a man of my word – I'll stay in Paris'

Jamie Roberts: 'I'm a man of my word – I'll stay in Paris'

Wales centre says he’s not coming home but is looking to establish himself at Racing Métro
How could three tourists have been battered within an inch of their lives by a burglar in a plush London hotel?

A crime that reveals London's dark heart

How could three tourists have been battered within an inch of their lives by a burglar in a plush London hotel?
Meet 'Porridge' and 'Vampire': Chinese state TV is offering advice for citizens picking a Western moniker

Lost in translation: Western monikers

Chinese state TV is offering advice for citizens picking a Western moniker. Simon Usborne, who met a 'Porridge' and a 'Vampire' while in China, can see the problem
Handy hacks that make life easier: New book reveals how to rid your inbox of spam, protect your passwords and amplify your iPhone

Handy hacks that make life easier

New book reveals how to rid your email inbox of spam, protect your passwords and amplify your iPhone with a loo-roll
KidZania lets children try their hands at being a firefighter, doctor or factory worker for the day

KidZania: It's a small world

The new 'educational entertainment experience' in London's Shepherd's Bush will allow children to try out the jobs that are usually undertaken by adults, including firefighter, doctor or factory worker