The north-east town saw off Braunschweig, Bydgoszcz and Ostrava to host European athletics' flagship team event for the first time after staging its predecessor, the SPAR European Cup, in 1989 and 2000.
The European Athletics Council announced the decision this afternoon after UK Athletics and the City of Gateshead presented their candidacy to host the fourth edition of the Super League.
European Athletics president Hansjorg Wirz said, "We are very pleased to confirm Gateshead will be the hosts of the European Team Championships Super League in 2013.
"Athletics has a huge following in Great Britain and we have been assured today that we can look forward to an excellent event."
UKA chief executive Niels de Vos said, "Gateshead 2013 will reinforce the European Team Championships as one of the biggest athletics events in the world.
"It will be the first major athletics event in Great Britain after the 2012 London Olympics and I am sure the event will develop, promote and foster athletics in Europe, and further raise the profile of the sport on the continent."
UK Sport's Lucy Crickmore said, "UK Sport are thrilled UKA and Gateshead have been awarded the 2013 European Team Championships.
"This event has been identified as a critical event for Great Britain to stage in 2013 and we look forward to working with European Athletics, UKA and Gateshead."
Gateshead Council's Linda Green said, "It's another coup for Gateshead.
"We're delighted to host the event and look forward to welcoming European Athletics back to a newly-developed stadium that we aim to fill with athletics fans, who will have the London Olympics fresh in their memories."