In Peru, for example, many indigenous communities have acquired communal land title around their villages and are in control of their territory; this has greatly reduced numbers of non-Indians invading and colonising their land.
In Brazil all too often powerful landowners and companies use the courts to obtain or uphold dubious title within Indian land, which constitutionally belongs to the state. One shocking example has just occurred in the south of Brazil, where a cattle rancher claiming title has forcibly evicted a community of Guarani Indians from an area demarcated as indigenous by the federal authorities. Banished to living in shacks by the roadside, the Indians now face a potentially long drawn-out battle in the courts in a climate of intimidation.
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