The empress strikes back: Catherine the Great exhibition at the National Museum of Scotland

view gallery VIEW GALLERY

A new exhibition at the National Museum of Scotland relives the glory of the reign of Catherine the Great of Russia. It's a splendid show with some breathtaking pieces, says Adrian Hamilton

If the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, keeps a portrait of Catherine the Great of Russia in her study, it is not, one hopes, because of the Russian Empress's expansionist foreign policy or the extravagance of her court let alone the string of lovers she took. It is because Catherine was a German and, more than that, a woman who worked and planned her way to the top and, having got there, used her wits and her intelligence as a woman to stay and reign over Russia's age of splendour for a 34-year term.

Certainly going around the splendid show mounted by the National Museum of Scotland from the holdings of the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg , what impresses you most – as it impressed her contemporaries – was how matronly she was. As a visitor to the court wrote: "It was impossible not to be struck by her beauty and majestic bearing. She was a large woman who, in spite of being very stout, was neither disfigured by her size nor embarrassed by her movements."

There were portraits aplenty, most of them with the tiresome attributes of a neo-classical art that made play of symbolism and allegory – Catherine pointing to the tomb of Peter the Great to emphasise her debt to that ferocious tyrant who forced Russia to modernity; Catherine receiving the captured standards of the Turks whom Russia twice defeated in the wars, and Catherine as Minerva, goddess of the arts.

But at the centre of it all is a face of warmth and liveliness. There's a copy of a painting by Vladimir Borovikovsky, one the brightest young painters in the emerging Russian school of portraiture that she helped develop, of her walking in the extensive parkland of her summer house at Tsarskoye Selo dressed in plain outdoor clothes, for all the world like a figure from Jane Austen. She rejected the painting as too informal but then she liked, and had copies made as gifts, a head and shoulders by Mikhail Shibanov in later years when she visited Crimea and the new territories conquered by her lover and secret husband, the formidable and bear-like Prince Grigory Potemkin. The portrait disguises nothing of her grey hairs or her portliness but it is of a mature woman whom you'd love to meet and talk to.

She'd had a hard coming of it, of that there was no doubt. Married at 16 to the heir to the Russian crown, the Grand Duke Peter, she entered a loveless relationship in which both partners took lovers. She was there to provide an heir and, when she did, was thrust aside again. As she recalled in her memoirs: "Finally toward noon, I bore a son... the Empress Elizabeth had her confessor come and he gave the child the name Paul. The Empress immediately had the child taken to a midwife. No one had thought about me. I was dying of hunger and thirst. Finally I was put in my bed and did not see a living soul the whole day."

The isolation lasted 17 years, during which time she learned Russian, made friends, read widely and prepared for the day the Empress died. When it came in 1761, she was ready. Her husband, part-educated in Germany, lost support by being too much in awe of Russia's enemy, Frederick of Prussia. His German wife gathered support by being seen as wholly Russian in her sympathies and her new Orthodox faith. Barely more than six months after he had become Emperor, Peter III was deposed and Catherine made Empress in 1762. A week later he was dead at the hands of the brother of Catherine's lover at the time, Count Grigory Orlov.

It's a sign of the times that the Russian art establishment could promote an exhibition like this, on the 250th anniversary of Catherine's accession. The shows calls her "Catherine the Great: an Enlightened Empress", which is pushing it a bit. Although Catherine set out to be a model ruler in terms of the Enlightenment, sought the friendship and advice of Diderot and Voltaire (both of whose libraries she bought) and wrote a provisional draft constitution, she soon backed down when the strength of the opposition from nobility and landowners showed itself. Serfdom increased under her long reign as did the privileges of the nobility.

What she was, and what the Hermitage clearly glories in, was a German turned Russian nationalist determined to show that Russia, through patronage of the arts as much as conquest, was the equal of any in Europe. Nothing was spared in the effort. Like a modern-day oligarch, Catherine had her agents scour Europe for old masters and new commissions for her palaces and new arts foundations. Just as Peter the Great had done, she brought in architects, artists and artisans to glorify her court but also to teach the Russians to produce the same. Porcelain, tapestry work, gemstones and ironwork, all found themselves encouraged with new factories and an assured imperial market.

The exhibition shows a comprehensive, and thankfully not too excessive, selection both of the work of the foreigners brought to St Petersburg and the local manufacture. Porcelain is very much to the fore. Catherine received it as gifts from France and Germany and gave it in large dinners services to her favourites, bent on making Russian imperial porcelain as great as Sèvres and Meissen. On the evidence here, Imperial Porcelain never quite matched its European models, although a wonderful Wedgwood service keeps up the British end. If you're looking for what was special about Russian craft it lies more in the glass and in the metalwork, of which there are some breathtaking examples.

In it all it is difficult to define precisely what was Catherine's own taste. Rational as she was, she preferred the new neo-classicism to the old Baroque or, in later life, to the new Romanticism. A charming portrait in the show of her two granddaughters by the French artist, Elisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, in the new sentimental style she dismissed as making the young girls look like "pug dogs" and "repulsive little French peasant girls". She had no ear for music, no discernible taste of her own in commissioning pictures. But she was passionate about architecture and interior decoration. Building, she declared, was a "diabolical thing. The more one builds the more one wants to build, it is as intoxicating as drink." Curiously for modern taste, she also had a passion for cameos, old and new, building up the largest holding anywhere of "tassies", copies of medallion made by James Tassie in London.

She managed men as Elizabeth of England had done: with care and to purpose. She balanced the forces of the country with great skill and she brought up her grandchildren with fondness. She was known as "mamuschka" or "little mother" in Russia, just as Chancellor Merkel is called "mutti" or "mum" in Germany today.

Catherine the Great: an Enlightened Empress, National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh (nms.ac.uk) until 21 October

Arts and Entertainment
Loaded weapon: drugs have surprise side effects for Scarlett Johansson in Luc Besson’s ‘Lucy’
film
Arts and Entertainment
Novelist Martin Amis at The Times Cheltenham Literature Festival

books
Arts and Entertainment
Alfred Molina, left, and John Lithgow in a scene from 'Love Is Strange'

After giving gay film R-rating despite no sex or violence

film
Arts and Entertainment
Robin Williams will be given a 'meaningful remembrance' at the Emmy Awards

film
Arts and Entertainment

tv
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Arts and Entertainment
'The Great British Bake Off' showcases food at its most sumptuous
tv
Arts and Entertainment
Cliff Richard performs at the Ziggo Dome in Amsterdam on 17 May 2014

music
Arts and Entertainment

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Educating the East End returns to Channel 4 this autumn

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Benedict Cumberbatch will voice Shere Khan in Andy Serkis' movie take on The Jungle Book

film
Arts and Entertainment
DJ Calvin Harris performs at the iHeartRadio Music Festival

music
Arts and Entertainment
The eyes have it: Kate Bush

music
Arts and Entertainment
From left to right: Mark Crown, DJ Locksmith and Amir Amor of Rudimental performing on stage during day one of the Wireless Festival at Perry Park, Birmingham

music
Arts and Entertainment

books
Arts and Entertainment
Tim Vine has won the funniest joke award at the Edinburgh Festival 2014

Edinburgh
Arts and Entertainment
Peter Capaldi and Chris Addison star in political comedy The Thick of IT

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Judy Murray said she

TV
Arts and Entertainment
Tim Vine has won the funniest joke award at the Edinburgh Festival 2014

edinburgh
Arts and Entertainment
Jeremy Paxman has admitted he is a 'one-nation Tory' and complained that Newsnight is made by idealistic '13-year-olds' who foolishly think they can 'change the world'.

Edinburgh
Arts and Entertainment
Seoul singer G-Dragon could lead the invasion as South Korea has its sights set on Western markets
music
Arts and Entertainment
Gary Lineker at the UK Premiere of 'The Hunger Games: Catching Fire'
tv
Arts and Entertainment
Christian Bale as Batman in a scene from
film
Arts and Entertainment
Johhny Cash in 1969
musicDyess Colony, where singer grew up in Depression-era Arkansas, opens to the public
Arts and Entertainment
Army dreamers: Randy Couture, Sylvester Stallone, Dolph Lundgren and Jason Statham
film
Arts and Entertainment
The Great British Bake Off 2014 contestants
tvReview: It's not going to set the comedy world alight but it's a gentle evening watch
Independent
Travel Shop
the manor
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on city breaks Find out more
santorini
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on chic beach resorts Find out more
sardina foodie
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on country retreats Find out more
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?

ES Rentals

    Independent Dating
    and  

    By clicking 'Search' you
    are agreeing to our
    Terms of Use.

    Air strikes? Talk of God? Obama is following the jihadists’ script

    Air strikes? Talk of God? Obama is following the jihadists’ script

    The President came the nearest he has come yet to rivalling George W Bush’s gormless reaction to 9/11 , says Robert Fisk
    Ebola outbreak: Billy Graham’s son declares righteous war on the virus

    Billy Graham’s son declares righteous war on Ebola

    A Christian charity’s efforts to save missionaries trapped in Africa by the crisis have been justifiably praised. But doubts remain about its evangelical motives
    Jeremy Clarkson 'does not see a problem' with his racist language on Top Gear, says BBC

    Not even Jeremy Clarkson is bigger than the BBC, says TV boss

    Corporation’s head of television confirms ‘Top Gear’ host was warned about racist language
    Nick Clegg the movie: Channel 4 to air Coalition drama showing Lib Dem leader's rise

    Nick Clegg the movie

    Channel 4 to air Coalition drama showing Lib Dem leader's rise
    Philip Larkin: Misogynist, racist, miserable? Or caring, playful man who lived for others?

    Philip Larkin: What will survive of him?

    Larkin's reputation has taken a knocking. But a new book by James Booth argues that the poet was affectionate, witty, entertaining and kind, as hitherto unseen letters, sketches and 'selfies' reveal
    Madame Tussauds has shown off its Beyoncé waxwork in Regent's Park - but why is the tourist attraction still pulling in the crowds?

    Waxing lyrical

    Madame Tussauds has shown off its Beyoncé waxwork in Regent's Park - but why is the tourist attraction still pulling in the crowds?
    Texas forensic astronomer finally pinpoints the exact birth of impressionism

    Revealed (to the minute)

    The precise time when impressionism was born
    From slow-roasted to sugar-cured: how to make the most of the British tomato season

    Make the most of British tomatoes

    The British crop is at its tastiest and most abundant. Sudi Pigott shares her favourite recipes
    10 best men's skincare products

    Face it: 10 best men's skincare products

    Oscar Quine cleanses, tones and moisturises to find skin-savers blokes will be proud to display on the bathroom shelf
    Malky Mackay allegations: Malky Mackay, Iain Moody and another grim day for English football

    Mackay, Moody and another grim day for English football

    The latest shocking claims do nothing to dispel the image that some in the game on these shores exist in a time warp, laments Sam Wallace
    La Liga analysis: Will Barcelona's hopes go out of the window?

    Will Barcelona's hopes go out of the window?

    Pete Jenson starts his preview of the Spanish season, which begins on Saturday, by explaining how Fifa’s transfer ban will affect the Catalans
    Middle East crisis: We know all too much about the cruelty of Isis – but all too little about who they are

    We know all too much about the cruelty of Isis – but all too little about who they are

    Now Obama has seen the next US reporter to be threatened with beheading, will he blink, asks Robert Fisk
    Neanderthals lived alongside humans for centuries, latest study shows

    Final resting place of our Neanderthal neighbours revealed

    Bones dated to 40,000 years ago show species may have died out in Belgium species co-existed
    Scottish independence: The new Scots who hold fate of the UK in their hands

    The new Scots who hold fate of the UK in their hands

    Scotland’s immigrants are as passionate about the future of their adopted nation as anyone else
    Britain's ugliest buildings: Which monstrosities should be nominated for the Dead Prize?

    Blight club: Britain's ugliest buildings

    Following the architect Cameron Sinclair's introduction of the Dead Prize, an award for ugly buildings, John Rentoul reflects on some of the biggest blots on the UK landscape