The UN estimates a quarter of a million Syrian people have died in the five years of conflict the country has faced.
Among the human tragedies, the landscape and cultural heritage of the country have also suffered badly.
The country once had six Unesco World Heritage Sites, all of which are now either destroyed or severely damaged, according to Unesco, the United Nations body responsible for identifying significant cultural landmarks.
Some sites have been blown up and shelled during conflict, while others have been deliberately pillaged.
Palmyra’s 2,000-year-old archaeological site Arch of Triumph, once a top tourist destination, was destroyed by Isis in October after the group seized control of the area in 2015.
The group also destroyed the 2,000-year-old Temple of Bel. Other archaeological sites such as Ampamea in Hama, Tell Merdikh in Idlib and the Dura-Europos and Mari sites in Deir el-Zour have also been destroyed.
The ancient city of Bosra, once a stopping place for pilgrims on the way to Mecca, has also seen destruction after the vestiges were ruined in December. The 2nd century Roman theatre was attacked on 22 December during fighting.
“The destructions sustained by Bosra represents a further escalation in the horror of war and must be stopped at once to allow to preserve the irreplaceable heritage of Bosra,” said Irina Bokova, director general of Unesco.
Gaining Unesco recognition in 2006, Crac des Chevaliers - one of the most important and well persevered medieval castles in the world – and Qal’at Salah El-Din, both from Byzantine Crusader and Islamic periods, date back to the 11th and 13th centuries. The Syrian government is reported to be building structures to preserve the site, according to ABC News, after it was reportedly shelled.
In pictures: Syria air strikes (2014)
In pictures: Syria air strikes (2014)
Syrian citizens check a damaged house that targeted by the coalition airstrikes, in the village of Kfar Derian, a base for the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front, a rival of the Isis group, between the northern province of Aleppo and Idlib
A Syrian boy (L) looking at a destroyed car that activists say was targeted by the coalition airstrikes, in the village of Kfar Derian, a base for the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front, a rival of the Islamic State group, between the northern province of Aleppo and Idlib
Parts of a missile that activists say was fired by coalition airstrikes, in the village of Kfar Derian, a base for the al-Qaida-linked Nusra Front, a rival of the Isis group, between the northern province of Aleppo and Idlib
Tthe guided-missile destroyer USS Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) launching Tomahawk cruise missiles against Isis targets
The USS Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) launches a Tomahawk cruise missiles in the Red Sea, to conduct strike missions against Isis group targets in Syria
The guided-missile cruiser USS Philippine Sea (CG 58) launching a Tomahawk cruise missile against Isis targets in Syria, as seen from the aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush (CVN 77) in the Arabian Gulf
US navy sailors standing watch on the bridge while Tomahawk cruise missiles are launched against Isis targets in Syria, aboard the guided-missile cruiser USS Philippine Sea (CG 58), in the Arabian Gulf
The US-led airstrikes in Syria against Isis targets in and around the city of Raqqa
A fighter from the Isis group holds a piece of what the IS is saying is a US drone that crashed into a communications tower in the Syrian city of Raqqa
Fighters from the Isis organisation pray at the spot where the jihadist group said a US drone crashed into a communications tower in the Syrian city of Raqqa
Fighters from the Isis group load a van with parts that they said was a US drone that crashed into a communications tower in the Syrian city of Raqqa
Fighters from the Isis group load a van with parts that they said was a US drone that crashed into a communications tower in Raqqa
Fighters from the Isis group gesture as they load a van with parts that they said was a US drone that crashed into a communications tower in Raqqa. A US-led coalition on carried out its first air strikes and missile attacks against jihadist positions in Syria, with Damascus saying it had been informed by Washington before the operation began
A Syrian man rides his bike past a communications tower that was destroyed after a US drone crashed into it, according to fighters with the Isis group, in the Syrian city of Raqqa
People inspect a shop damaged after what Isis militants say was a U.S. drone crashed into a communication station nearby in Raqqa
A man holds the remains of what Isis militants say was a U.S. drone which crashed in Raqqa
Resident gather in the back of a van the remains of what Isis militants say was a drone which crashed in Raqqa
A man inspects the remains of what Isismilitants say was a U.S. drone which crashed into a communication tower in Raqqa
A man inspects the remains of what Isis militants say was a U.S. drone which crashed in Raqqa
The country’s largest city and capital of Aleppo in the north has been devastated by the war. Within the city, the famous Umayyad Mosque complex has been severely damaged and is now full of rubble, while its 11th-century minaret has been destroyed.
The Ancient City of Damascus, given Unesco status in 1979, has been reduced to a collection of ruined buildings..
A preliminary World Bank assessment from January showed Aleppo, Darra, Hama, Homs, Idlib and Latakia to have an estimated $3.6-4.5 billion at the end of 2014.
A French team of digital surveyors from Iconem are working with archaeologists from the Syrian Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) to preserve the historic sites by creating detailed 3D maps of the sites.
“This solution gives our archaeological sites a real hope of renaissance and allows the memory of them to be preserved,” said Maamoun Abdulkarim, the head of DGAM.
A report compiled by the consultant group Frontier Economics and charity World Vision estimates that since 2011, the conflict has cost Syria $275 billion in loss of growth, which is 150 times more than Syria’s budget before the war began.
If the war ends by 2020, the World Bank estimates the cost of the conflict will have grown to £1.3 trillion.
More than 250,000 people are estimated to have been killed since fighting began in 2011.Reuse content