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Berliners from East and West celebrate at the Brandenburg Gate

Fall of the Berlin Wall, from the archive: ‘Hammers chip away as the oranges are brought home...’

A dispatch from Terry Coleman vividly captured the euphoria of reunited Berliners

Footage of Erich Honecker delivering a speech is shown on a television in a faithfully-reconstructed typical East German home

Fall of the Berlin Wall: History catches up with Erich Honecker - the East German leader who praised the Iron Curtain and claimed it prevented a Third World War

Tony Paterson reflects on the man whose career was synonymous with physical separation from the West

Fall of the Berlin Wall eyewitness: ‘We took a picnic to the people from the East. It felt like a time to share...’

What happened was such a surprise. Nobody was really expecting the Wall to collapse when it did, but that night there was such a party atmosphere in Berlin. We couldn’t believe what was happening, there was such excitement.

East German refugees outside the West German embassy in Prague in October 1989 waiting to take a train for the West

Fall of the Berlin Wall: A people’s uprising that grew until it remade Europe

In a matter of months, a few local outbursts of protest set off a vast conflagration of people-power that overwhelmed the entire Soviet bloc. Steve Crawshaw remembers the exhilarating challenge of reporting the events for ‘The Independent’

Fall of the Berlin Wall, from the archive: ‘Suddenly the world has no edge any more’

The age of mined frontiers patrolled by helmeted men with guns and dogs is over, writes Neal Ascherson

East Berlin, just 2 days before the Berlin Wall came down

Fall of the Berlin Wall: Goodbye to all that - the lost world beyond the Iron Curtain

Germans who bemoan the failures of reunification might do better to remember how bad it actually was - and reflect on how far the country has come

The Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, watched by his wife Raisa, right, kisses his East German counterpart Erich Honecker in East Berlin in October 1989

Fall of the Berlin Wall eyewitness: An accidental explosion of freedom

A journalist who witnessed the events of 1989 from a Soviet perspective looks back on a surreal period when attempts at moderate reform quickly an uncontrollable momentum of their own

East German drivers queue at the Schirnding border crossing into Czecho-slovakia five days before the fall of the Berlin

Fall of the Berlin Wall, from the archive: ‘Another crack in the Wall...’

Politicians said  no one could have foreseen the events of November 1989. This report by Steve Crawshaw proves them wrong

East Berliners climb onto the Berlin Wall to celebrate the effective end of the city's partition on 31st December 1989

Fall of the Berlin Wall: Timeline of a year of wonder, when the unthinkable became the unstoppable

The fall of the Berlin Wall was merely the highlight of a year of extraordinary political drama. Here are some key moments, described largely through headlines on The Independent’s reports. (The dates refer to the events rather than the reports.)

Police from both sides stand idly by as the Berlin Wall is breached for the first time between East and West, at the Sandkrug Bridge crossing-point on Invaliden Strasse, in November 1989

Fall of the Berlin Wall: 25 years on, we remember the day the world fell apart

Twenty-five years ago next month, the man-made geographical feature that had defined post-war Europe vanished with dizzying abruptness. Introducing a week-long celebration of a still barely credible political earthquake, Boyd Tonkin reports from Berlin

Hitler was 'a regular user of crystal meth', American Military Intelligence dossier reveals

The Fuhrer was a famous hypochondriac and took over 74 different medications, including methamphetamines

Lest we forget: Frances tending a grave

Exeter College's rector is embarking on a journey to visit graves of Exonians killed in Great War

Together with the college's chaplain Rev Andrew Allen, Frances Carincross is spending 10 days visiting as many as possible of the "lost boys", leaving each a sprig of rosemary from the college gardens, tied in ribbon in the college colours of magenta and black

The beard token featured a picture of a large beard below the words 'The money has been taken', with 'The beard is a superfluous burden' on the flipside

Rhodri Marsden's Interesting Objects: Peter the Great's beard token

* It doesn't seem like 316 years ago this week, does it, since Peter the Great returned to Moscow from a trip to Western Europe with a burning desire to modernise the country of his birth. Widespread political, military and social reforms were to follow over the next few years, but Peter knew exactly where to start. Beards.

These images show the crowds outside Buckingham Palace and Berlin Cathedral in August 1914 as war was declared

First World War Centenary: Powerful images that capture the moment cheering Europe heralded the declaration of war

Photos make stark contrast with those from bloody battlefields in years that followed

People pass the Royal Courts of Justice next to Serbian soldiers marching in the Lord Mayor's show, London, in the last days of the First World War in November 1918

First World War Centenary: Powerful photographs bring wartime Britain to life

Composite images put moments from the conflict in the present day

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Independent Travel
Pompeii, Capri & the Bay of Naples
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Louis Theroux's affable Englishman routine begins to wear thin

By Reason of Insanity

Louis Theroux's affable Englishman routine begins to wear thin
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Power dressing is back

But banish all thoughts of Eighties shoulderpads
Spanish stone-age cave paintings 'under threat' after being re-opened to the public

Spanish stone-age cave paintings in Altamira 'under threat'

Caves were re-opened to the public
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Vince Cable interview

'I was the bookies’ favourite to be first to leave the Cabinet'
Election 2015: How many of the Government's coalition agreement promises have been kept?

Promises, promises

But how many coalition agreement pledges have been kept?
The Gaza fisherman who built his own reef - and was shot dead there by an Israeli gunboat

The death of a Gaza fisherman

He built his own reef, and was fatally shot there by an Israeli gunboat
Saudi Arabia's airstrikes in Yemen are fuelling the Gulf's fire

Saudi airstrikes are fuelling the Gulf's fire

Arab intervention in Yemen risks entrenching Sunni-Shia divide and handing a victory to Isis, says Patrick Cockburn
Zayn Malik's departure from One Direction shows the perils of fame in the age of social media

The only direction Zayn could go

We wince at the anguish of One Direction's fans, but Malik's departure shows the perils of fame in the age of social media
Young Magician of the Year 2015: Meet the schoolgirl from Newcastle who has her heart set on being the competition's first female winner

Spells like teen spirit

A 16-year-old from Newcastle has set her heart on being the first female to win Young Magician of the Year. Jonathan Owen meets her
Jonathan Anderson: If fashion is a cycle, this young man knows just how to ride it

If fashion is a cycle, this young man knows just how to ride it

British designer Jonathan Anderson is putting his stamp on venerable house Loewe
Number plates scheme could provide a licence to offend in the land of the free

Licence to offend in the land of the free

Cash-strapped states have hit on a way of making money out of drivers that may be in collision with the First Amendment, says Rupert Cornwell
From farm to fork: Meet the Cornish fishermen, vegetable-growers and butchers causing a stir in London's top restaurants

From farm to fork in Cornwall

One man is bringing together Cornwall's most accomplished growers, fishermen and butchers with London's best chefs to put the finest, freshest produce on the plates of some of the country’s best restaurants
Robert Parker interview: The world's top wine critic on tasting 10,000 bottles a year, absurd drinking notes and New World wannabes

Robert Parker interview

The world's top wine critic on tasting 10,000 bottles a year, absurd drinking notes and New World wannabes
Don't believe the stereotype - or should you?

Don't believe the stereotype - or should you?

We exaggerate regional traits and turn them into jokes - and those on the receiving end are in on it too, says DJ Taylor