The Russian President was expected to visit France next Tuesday, but Mr Putin suspended the trip after learning he would attend meetings to discuss Syria instead of attending Russian cultural events, Mr Hollande has claimed.
Over the weekend, Russia blocked a UN resolution for a ceasefire proposed by France and Spain. France’s foreign minister Jean-Marc Ayrault then said he would ask the International Court of Justice to investigate Russia’s part in possible war crimes in Syria.
“France has a major disagreement with Russia over Syria,” Mr Hollande said on Tuesday. “And the Russian veto to the French resolution at the UN council has prevented the cessation of the bombings, as well as the proclamation of a ceasefire.”
Yet he added that for the humanitarian disaster to end, communication with Moscow was needed.
“The main victims are the civilians who live and die under the bombs,” Mr Hollande said. “That’s the reason why I consider that a dialogue with Russia is necessary. But it should be firm and open. Otherwise ... it’s a mockery.”
The Kremlin confirmed Mr Putin’s decision to cancel, but made no mention of Syria and said he was ready to come to Paris at Mr Hollande’s convenience.
Russian jets resumed heavy bombing of eastern Aleppo on Tuesday after several days of relative calm, a rebel official and the Britain-based monitoring group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said.
Air strikes on the besieged part of the city killed at least eight people Tuesday, while shelling of a government-held neighbourhood in a southern Syrian city hit a school, killing at least six people, among them children, activists and state media said.
Before the change in agenda, Mr Putin’s visit to Paris included attending the opening of Russian cultural centre and orthodox church.
Mr Putin’s spokesperson said: “Regrettably, those events dropped out of the programme. The president decided to cancel the visit.”
Mr Peskov said Mr Putin could visit France at a later date which would be “comfortable” for Mr Hollande.
He denied that the cancelled visit reflected Moscow’s increasing diplomatic isolation over Syria.
“No, the president hasn't found himself in isolation,” Mr Peskov said, and he dismissed the claim as “absurd”.
“Russia and its president aren’t facing anything of the kind.”
In the UK, ahead of an emergency commons debate on the crisis in Aleppo, former International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell compared Russia’s actions in the Syrian conflict to that of the Nazis before World War II.
In pictures: Aleppo bombing
In pictures: Aleppo bombing
1/14 Bombing in Aleppo
Smoke rises after airstrikes on the rebel-held al-Sakhour neighborhood of Aleppo, Syria April 29, 2016.
2/14 Bombing in Aleppo
A Syrian family runs for cover amid the rubble of destroyed buildings following a reported air strike on the rebel-held neighbourhood of Al-Qatarji in the northern Syrian city of Aleppo, on April 29, 2016.
3/14 Bombing in Aleppo
A man reacts as he stands on blood stains at a site hit by airstrikes in the rebel held area of Aleppo's al-Fardous district, Syria, April 29, 2016.
4/14 Bombing in Aleppo
The damage of the airstrikes in the rebel-held area of Aleppo on April 28
5/14 Bombing in Aleppo
The damaged the Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)-backed al-Quds hospital after it was hit by airstrikes, in a rebel-held area of Syria's Aleppo
6/14 Bombing in Aleppo
Syrians evacuate an injured man amid the rubble of destroyed buildings following an air strike on a rebel-held of Aleppo on April 29, 2016.
7/14 Bombing in Aleppo
People inspect the damage at a site hit by airstrikes, in the rebel-held area of Aleppo's Bustan al-Qasr
8/14 Bombing in Aleppo
A man leads a woman in tears and child out of the scene after airstrikes hit Aleppo
9/14 Bombing in Aleppo
Civil defence members search for survivors after an airstrike at a field hospital in the rebel held area of al-Sukari district of Aleppo
10/14 Bombing in Aleppo
A Syrian boy is comforted as he cries next to the body of a relative who died in a reported air strike in the rebel-held neighbourhood of al-Soukour in the northern city of Aleppo
11/14 Bombing in Aleppo
A Syrian family walks amid the rubble of destroyed buildings following a reported air strike in the Bustan al-Qasr rebel-held district of the northern Syrian city of Aleppo
12/14 Bombing in Aleppo
Syrian civil defence volunteers and rescuers remove a baby from under the rubble of a destroyed building following a reported air strike on the rebel-held neighbourhood of al-Kalasa in the northern Syrian city of Aleppo
13/14 Bombing in Aleppo
Syrians help a wounded youth following an air strike on the Fardous rebel held neighbourhood of the northern Syrian city of Aleppo
14/14 Bombing in Aleppo
Syrian civil defence volunteers evacuate people from a damaged building following a reported airstrike in the rebel-held neighbourhood of Tareeq al-Bab in the northern city of Aleppo
Mr Mitchell said Russia has “shredded” international law by providing military support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s bombing campaign of rebel neighbourhoods.
“We are witnessing events which match the behaviour of the Nazi regime in Guernica in Spain,” he said.
Additional reporting by Associated Press
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