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It will be difficult – but not impossible – to detect the chemical breakdown products of any nerve agents that may have been used in the Damascus attack, but access to the victims could be critical in proving the illicit use of chemical weapons.

Electric eels spark hope on kidney stones

British scientists have discovered why electric eels do not get kidney stones but humans - and especially men - do.

ROCK: Going underground

Kim Deal found fame with the Pixies and the Breeders. Then everything fell apart. Ben Thompson hears what happened

New drug cuts heart attack risk

GLENDA COOPER

Why change will take a long time to filter through

Women and work: Report urges the strengthening of maternity provisions, childcare facilities and retraining programmes; Liz Searl finds the first female Fellow of Trinity keen to win improvements

the human condition: a gut reaction to the nineties

IN THE EIGHTIES, IT WAS JOGGING AND JANE FONDA. NOW IT'S ALL COLONIC IRRIGATION AND DETOX DIETS. AS STRESS PLAYS HAVOC WITH OUR DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS, INTERNAL CLEANLINESS HAS TAKEN ITS PLACE NEXT TO GODLINESS; 4 'The idea that some foods are full of toxins is wrong. It's a prostitution of science' 4

Sherry toasts win

Golf

OBITUARY: Christian Anfinsen

Christian Anfinsen was the joint winner of the 1972 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work done with the enzyme ribonuclease while he was chief of the laboratory of chemical biology at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), at Bethesda, Maryland.

If the worm turns blue, the river's polluted

Ruth McKernan looks at the development and use of `biological litmus tests'

Celsis tests the water with a faster bug-detection kit

SPOTTING contaminated drinking water is a bit like closing a barn door after the horses have bolted. The time it takes water to flow from reservoir intake to kitchen tap is typically about a day, but tests for microbes, using techniques unchanged for more than a century, can run for up to four days. Celsis International, a Cambridge-based diagnostics company, hopes to reduce the time-lag to just 24 hours.

Molecule of the Month : Cleo watched the bitter berry work and opted for the asp

John Emsley looks at atropine, the poisonous product of the deadly nightshade

Garden plants in poison alert

The dangers of the sweet pea and the yew tree are to be highlighted in a campaign alerting people to the poisonous attributes of some of Britain's most popular plants. The National Poisons Unit is to run a poster campaign and will work with the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew and the Royal Horticultural Society to carry out an expert review of the toxicity of plants on sale in garden centres and nurseries.

Obituary: Professor Adolf Butenandt

Adolf Butenandt was one of the leading biochemists of the first half of this century. In 1939 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his primary achievements - the isolation in the years 1929 to 1934 of the sex hormones oestrone, androst erone and progesterone, and the elucidation of their chemical structure. The Nazi government forbade him from accepting the prize. After the award of the Nobel Prize for Peace to Carl von Ossietzky, who was in a German concentration camp, German citizens were barred by law from accepting Nobel Prizes. It was only after the Second World War that the Swedish Academy asked Butenandt about the circumstances of his refusal. As a result, he received the document and the medal and was listed officially as a No bel prizewinner.

Wariso turns on gas for personal best

Solomon Wariso completed his first competition since a three-month doping suspension with a personal-best performance at Birmingham's national indoor arena yesterday, writes Mike Rowbottom.

Obituary: Professor Walter Bartley

Walter Bartley, biochemist: born Brighton 20 January 1916; Professor of Biochemistry, Sheffield University 1963-81, Dean of the Faculty of Pure Science 1972-75, Pro Vice Chancellor 1977-81; married (one son, one daughter); died Sheffield 19 August 1994.

Obituary: Professor Yeshayahu Leibowitz

Yeshayahu Leibowitz, biochemist, neurophysiologist, philosopher: born Riga, Latvia c1903; married (one son, three daughters, and two sons deceased); died Jerusalem 18 August 1994.
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General Election 2015: Chuka Umunna on the benefits of immigration, humility – and his leader Ed Miliband

Chuka Umunna: A virus of racism runs through Ukip

The shadow business secretary on the benefits of immigration, humility – and his leader Ed Miliband
Yemen crisis: This exotic war will soon become Europe's problem

Yemen's exotic war will soon affect Europe

Terrorism and boatloads of desperate migrants will be the outcome of the Saudi air campaign, says Patrick Cockburn
Marginal Streets project aims to document voters in the run-up to the General Election

Marginal Streets project documents voters

Independent photographers Joseph Fox and Orlando Gili are uploading two portraits of constituents to their website for each day of the campaign
Game of Thrones: Visit the real-life kingdom of Westeros to see where violent history ends and telly tourism begins

The real-life kingdom of Westeros

Is there something a little uncomfortable about Game of Thrones shooting in Northern Ireland?
How to survive a social-media mauling, by the tough women of Twitter

How to survive a Twitter mauling

Mary Beard, Caroline Criado-Perez, Louise Mensch, Bunny La Roche and Courtney Barrasford reveal how to trounce the trolls
Gallipoli centenary: At dawn, the young remember the young who perished in one of the First World War's bloodiest battles

At dawn, the young remember the young

A century ago, soldiers of the Empire – many no more than boys – spilt on to Gallipoli’s beaches. On this 100th Anzac Day, there are personal, poetic tributes to their sacrifice
Dissent is slowly building against the billions spent on presidential campaigns – even among politicians themselves

Follow the money as never before

Dissent is slowly building against the billions spent on presidential campaigns – even among politicians themselves, reports Rupert Cornwell
Samuel West interview: The actor and director on austerity, unionisation, and not mentioning his famous parents

Samuel West interview

The actor and director on austerity, unionisation, and not mentioning his famous parents
General Election 2015: Imagine if the leading political parties were fashion labels

Imagine if the leading political parties were fashion labels

Fashion editor, Alexander Fury, on what the leaders' appearances tell us about them
Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka: Home can be the unsafest place for women

Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka: Home can be the unsafest place for women

The architect of the HeForShe movement and head of UN Women on the world's failure to combat domestic violence
Public relations as 'art'? Surely not

Confessions of a former PR man

The 'art' of public relations is being celebrated by the V&A museum, triggering some happy memories for DJ Taylor
Bill Granger recipes: Our chef succumbs to his sugar cravings with super-luxurious sweet treats

Bill Granger's luxurious sweet treats

Our chef loves to stop for 30 minutes to catch up on the day's gossip, while nibbling on something sweet
London Marathon 2015: Paula Radcliffe and the mother of all goodbyes

The mother of all goodbyes

Paula Radcliffe's farewell to the London Marathon will be a family affair
Everton vs Manchester United: Steven Naismith demands 'better' if Toffees are to upset the odds against United

Steven Naismith: 'We know we must do better'

The Everton forward explains the reasons behind club's decline this season
Arsenal vs Chelsea: Praise to Arsene Wenger for having the courage of his convictions

Michael Calvin's Last Word

Praise to Wenger for having the courage of his convictions