News

It will be difficult – but not impossible – to detect the chemical breakdown products of any nerve agents that may have been used in the Damascus attack, but access to the victims could be critical in proving the illicit use of chemical weapons.

Electric eels spark hope on kidney stones

British scientists have discovered why electric eels do not get kidney stones but humans - and especially men - do.

ROCK: Going underground

Kim Deal found fame with the Pixies and the Breeders. Then everything fell apart. Ben Thompson hears what happened

New drug cuts heart attack risk

GLENDA COOPER

Why change will take a long time to filter through

Women and work: Report urges the strengthening of maternity provisions, childcare facilities and retraining programmes; Liz Searl finds the first female Fellow of Trinity keen to win improvements

the human condition: a gut reaction to the nineties

IN THE EIGHTIES, IT WAS JOGGING AND JANE FONDA. NOW IT'S ALL COLONIC IRRIGATION AND DETOX DIETS. AS STRESS PLAYS HAVOC WITH OUR DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS, INTERNAL CLEANLINESS HAS TAKEN ITS PLACE NEXT TO GODLINESS; 4 'The idea that some foods are full of toxins is wrong. It's a prostitution of science' 4

Sherry toasts win

Golf

OBITUARY: Christian Anfinsen

Christian Anfinsen was the joint winner of the 1972 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work done with the enzyme ribonuclease while he was chief of the laboratory of chemical biology at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), at Bethesda, Maryland.

If the worm turns blue, the river's polluted

Ruth McKernan looks at the development and use of `biological litmus tests'

Celsis tests the water with a faster bug-detection kit

SPOTTING contaminated drinking water is a bit like closing a barn door after the horses have bolted. The time it takes water to flow from reservoir intake to kitchen tap is typically about a day, but tests for microbes, using techniques unchanged for more than a century, can run for up to four days. Celsis International, a Cambridge-based diagnostics company, hopes to reduce the time-lag to just 24 hours.

Molecule of the Month : Cleo watched the bitter berry work and opted for the asp

John Emsley looks at atropine, the poisonous product of the deadly nightshade

Garden plants in poison alert

The dangers of the sweet pea and the yew tree are to be highlighted in a campaign alerting people to the poisonous attributes of some of Britain's most popular plants. The National Poisons Unit is to run a poster campaign and will work with the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew and the Royal Horticultural Society to carry out an expert review of the toxicity of plants on sale in garden centres and nurseries.

Obituary: Professor Adolf Butenandt

Adolf Butenandt was one of the leading biochemists of the first half of this century. In 1939 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his primary achievements - the isolation in the years 1929 to 1934 of the sex hormones oestrone, androst erone and progesterone, and the elucidation of their chemical structure. The Nazi government forbade him from accepting the prize. After the award of the Nobel Prize for Peace to Carl von Ossietzky, who was in a German concentration camp, German citizens were barred by law from accepting Nobel Prizes. It was only after the Second World War that the Swedish Academy asked Butenandt about the circumstances of his refusal. As a result, he received the document and the medal and was listed officially as a No bel prizewinner.

Wariso turns on gas for personal best

Solomon Wariso completed his first competition since a three-month doping suspension with a personal-best performance at Birmingham's national indoor arena yesterday, writes Mike Rowbottom.

Obituary: Professor Walter Bartley

Walter Bartley, biochemist: born Brighton 20 January 1916; Professor of Biochemistry, Sheffield University 1963-81, Dean of the Faculty of Pure Science 1972-75, Pro Vice Chancellor 1977-81; married (one son, one daughter); died Sheffield 19 August 1994.

Obituary: Professor Yeshayahu Leibowitz

Yeshayahu Leibowitz, biochemist, neurophysiologist, philosopher: born Riga, Latvia c1903; married (one son, three daughters, and two sons deceased); died Jerusalem 18 August 1994.
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Independent Travel
Pompeii, Capri & the Bay of Naples
Dubrovnik, the Dalmatian Coast & Montenegro
Burgundy, the River Rhone & Provence
Lisbon, Oporto and the Douro Valley
Lake Garda, Venice & Verona
Spain
Prices correct as of 23 January 2015
Syria crisis: Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more refugees as one young mother tells of torture by Assad regime

Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more Syrian refugees

One young mother tells of torture by Assad regime
The enemy within: People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back – with promising results

The enemy within

People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back
'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

Survivors of the Nazi concentration camp remember its horror, 70 years on
Autumn/winter menswear 2015: The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore

Autumn/winter menswear 2015

The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore
'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

Army general planning to come out
Iraq invasion 2003: The bloody warnings six wise men gave to Tony Blair as he prepared to launch poorly planned campaign

What the six wise men told Tony Blair

Months before the invasion of Iraq in 2003, experts sought to warn the PM about his plans. Here, four of them recall that day
25 years of The Independent on Sunday: The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century

25 years of The Independent on Sunday

The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century
Homeless Veterans appeal: 'Really caring is a dangerous emotion in this kind of work'

Homeless Veterans appeal

As head of The Soldiers' Charity, Martin Rutledge has to temper compassion with realism. He tells Chris Green how his Army career prepared him
Wu-Tang Clan and The Sexual Objects offer fans a chance to own the only copies of their latest albums

Smash hit go under the hammer

It's nice to pick up a new record once in a while, but the purchasers of two latest releases can go a step further - by buying the only copy
Geeks who rocked the world: Documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry

The geeks who rocked the world

A new documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry
Belle & Sebastian interview: Stuart Murdoch reveals how the band is taking a new direction

Belle & Sebastian is taking a new direction

Twenty years ago, Belle & Sebastian was a fey indie band from Glasgow. It still is – except today, as prime mover Stuart Murdoch admits, it has a global cult following, from Hollywood to South Korea
America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

These days in the US things are pretty much stuck where they are, both in politics and society at large, says Rupert Cornwell
A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

A veteran of the Fifties campaigns is inspiring a new generation of activists
Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

A C Benson called him 'a horrid little fellow', George Orwell would have shot him, but what a giant he seems now, says DJ Taylor
Growing mussels: Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project

Growing mussels

Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project