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It will be difficult – but not impossible – to detect the chemical breakdown products of any nerve agents that may have been used in the Damascus attack, but access to the victims could be critical in proving the illicit use of chemical weapons.

'Evil' duo jailed for life over sadistic murders

A dangerous knife thug freed from jail by mistake was today jailed for life with a minimum of 40 years for the "sadistic" murders of two brilliant French students.

Carola Long: 'Body scrubs need to be intensive to counteract the lizard-like skin induced by cold British weather'

Exfoliation is the first step in any summer metamorphosis, especially one involving fake tan. After all, you wouldn't start repainting a wall – a job which is about as exciting as applying bronzer – without stripping the manky old plaster first. However, when it comes to exfoliation, stripping is the last thing one wants; rather, it's key to find a product that creates an even surface for the colour to take to without damaging the skin.

Postgraduate Lives: 'Companies use enzymes to change their products'

Nathaniel Saidu, 25, is doing an MSc in biocatalysis at the University of Exeter

Court told of French students' 'inhuman' murders

Two French students were tortured and murdered in a London flat in a scene of "almost unimaginable horror" when a burglary at their home went wrong, a court heard today.

Murder suspect burgled French students' home

A man accused of murdering two French students during a frenzied attack at a London house admitted today he had carried out a burglary at the property.

Quadriplegic sailor challenges elements again

Fundraiser aims to sail solo around the British Isles aided by 'sip and puff' controls

How does architecture affect academic study?

Jay Merrick visits a cutting-edge lab in Oxford to find out

How the smell of rotten eggs makes men randy

Scientists take eight transsexuals and a whiff of hydrogen sulphide to begin making an alternative to Viagra

Breakthrough could lead to new prostate cancer test

A newly discovered molecule linked to aggressive prostate cancer could open the door to better ways of tracking and treating the disease, say scientists.

Professor Sir James Baddiley: Biochemist who applied his understanding of organic chemistry to problems in biology

The biochemist James Baddiley was a master of experimentation, with an intuitive ability to deal with the vagaries of organic compounds. Although he was an organic chemist by training, his research brought him increasingly into the field of biochemistry and biology. When each new problem presented itself, he learned or devised the experimental techniques necessary for its solution. He used the methods and insight of the organic chemist to answer important questions in biology, notably with regard to coenzyme structure and function, and the structure of bacterial cell walls.

Enzyme discovery may hold key to cancer treatments

A major discovery could open the door to "one-fits-all" cancer drugs that can tackle many different forms of the disease.

Hal Dixon: Cambridge biochemist

Hal Dixon was a biochemist, a Life Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, who was cleverer than most of his colleagues, enthusiastic and energetic, but who never achieved the heights of scientific success that his abilities merited. But he was a wonderful colleague, friend and teacher.

Man, 21, arrested over murder of French students

A 21-year-old man was arrested in the early hours of yesterday in connection with the murders of the French students Laurent Bonomo and Gabriel Ferez.

Laurent and Gabriel: a friendship that blossomed on an exchange programme

They were two students who came to London from France to study, and had agreed to extend their stay by a month because they were enjoying it so much.

So, Long John Silver, where did the leg go?

A prequel to 'Treasure Island' will give one author's answers to questions posed by Robert Louis Stevenson's classic
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Pompeii, Capri & the Bay of Naples
Dubrovnik, the Dalmatian Coast & Montenegro
Burgundy, the River Rhone & Provence
Lisbon, Oporto and the Douro Valley
Lake Garda, Venice & Verona
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Syria crisis: Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more refugees as one young mother tells of torture by Assad regime

Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more Syrian refugees

One young mother tells of torture by Assad regime
The enemy within: People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back – with promising results

The enemy within

People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back
'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

Survivors of the Nazi concentration camp remember its horror, 70 years on
Autumn/winter menswear 2015: The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore

Autumn/winter menswear 2015

The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore
'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

Army general planning to come out
Iraq invasion 2003: The bloody warnings six wise men gave to Tony Blair as he prepared to launch poorly planned campaign

What the six wise men told Tony Blair

Months before the invasion of Iraq in 2003, experts sought to warn the PM about his plans. Here, four of them recall that day
25 years of The Independent on Sunday: The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century

25 years of The Independent on Sunday

The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century
Homeless Veterans appeal: 'Really caring is a dangerous emotion in this kind of work'

Homeless Veterans appeal

As head of The Soldiers' Charity, Martin Rutledge has to temper compassion with realism. He tells Chris Green how his Army career prepared him
Wu-Tang Clan and The Sexual Objects offer fans a chance to own the only copies of their latest albums

Smash hit go under the hammer

It's nice to pick up a new record once in a while, but the purchasers of two latest releases can go a step further - by buying the only copy
Geeks who rocked the world: Documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry

The geeks who rocked the world

A new documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry
Belle & Sebastian interview: Stuart Murdoch reveals how the band is taking a new direction

Belle & Sebastian is taking a new direction

Twenty years ago, Belle & Sebastian was a fey indie band from Glasgow. It still is – except today, as prime mover Stuart Murdoch admits, it has a global cult following, from Hollywood to South Korea
America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

America: Land of the free, home of the political dynasty

These days in the US things are pretty much stuck where they are, both in politics and society at large, says Rupert Cornwell
A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

A graphic history of US civil rights – in comic book form

A veteran of the Fifties campaigns is inspiring a new generation of activists
Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

Winston Churchill: the enigma of a British hero

A C Benson called him 'a horrid little fellow', George Orwell would have shot him, but what a giant he seems now, says DJ Taylor
Growing mussels: Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project

Growing mussels

Precious freshwater shellfish are thriving in a unique green project