The origins of more than 45,000 surnames in Britain have been revealed by a team of university researchers.
The four-year study, led by a team from the University of West of England in Bristol, has investigated the linguistic origins of every surname; from the most popular to some of the most obscure.
Here is a list of the 25 most popular surnames in Britain, and what they say about your family history.
Number in Great Britain: 546,960
An English and Scottish occupational name from the Middle English period (1150 – 1470) for someone who works with metal, such as a blacksmith.
Number in GB: 422,023
An English and Welsh variant of the Middle English personal name Jon. It only became widespread in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Number in GB: 294,625
A variant of William, which is a personal name from Middle English adapted from the German name Willihelm, which roughly translates as ‘desire and protection’.
Number in GB: 250,780
The occupational name from Middle English for a tailor.
Number in GB: 215,074
A Welsh patronymic name, which means it is originally derived from the name of a father. Morphed from ‘Dafydd’s (son)’ over time.
Number in GB: 195,410
English and Scottish nickname for a person with brown hair or brown complexion.
Number in GB: 186,540
An English patronymic name that means ‘son of Will’, which is itself a shortened form of William.
Number in GB: 171,816
A variant of Evan, which is a Welsh form of the English name John.
Number in GB: 159,643
An English and Welsh name from the New Testament, and made popular due to Christ’s disciple Saint Thomas.
Number in GB: 151,518
English patronymic name that means ‘son of John’, which is itself derived from the Hebrew name Johanan, which means ‘Jehovah has favoured’.
Number in GB: 145,968
An English variant of the Middle English personal name Robert, which was introduced by the Normans.
Number in GB: 133,929
An English and Scottish occupational name for a what would now be known as a fuller; someone who beats and presses cloth to make if denser.
Number in GB: 130,416
An English and Scottish occupational name from Middle English for a craftsman, particularly a carpenter or a joiner.
Number in GB: 128,225
English patronymic name that means ‘son of Robin’, which is itself a shortened nickname of Robert.
Number in GB: 127,966
An English Middle name meaning ‘son of Tom’. Thomson – without the ‘p’ – is usually the Scottish name.
Number in GB: 123,667
A Middle English nickname referring to people with fair hair or a pale complexion.
Number in GB: 120,505
An English and Welsh variant of Hugh, which was taken from the Germanic name Hugo.
Number in GB: 118,840
An English variant of Edward, which was first recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086.
Number in GB: 114,774
A Middle English name for someone who lived by the village green.
Number in GB: 112,613
A English name from the Middle English period, taken from the Old French personal names Lewis, Leweis and Lowis.
Number in GB: 111,127
A Middle English name for someone who lived in or near a wood.
Number in GB: 110,306
English name from the personal name Harry, which is a common form of Henry.
Number in GB: 109,869
A Middle English personal name adapted from the Medieval Latin Martinus, which was made popular due to Saint Martin of Tours (316-397).
Number in GB: 109,086
An English name meaning ‘son of Jack’, which is itself a shortened nickname of the John.
Number in GB: 108,022
An English occupational name for a cleric or writer. The original sense was usually a cleric in a religious order.
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