To huge cheers and chants of “Johnson out!”, the Labour leader said the prime minister should become the shortest-ever serving leader and that his party was ready to form a government.
“I invite Boris Johnson, in the historic words, to 'consider his position' and become the shortest prime minister there’s ever been,” he told delegates at the Labour Party's annual conference in Brighton.
On the judges verdict, Mr Corbyn said: “It demonstrates a contempt for democracy and an abuse of democracy by him.”
“I will be in touch with [Speaker Bercow] immediately so that we demand parliament is recalled so we can question the prime minister and demand that he obeys the law that has been passed by parliament.”
The Supreme Court's president, Lady Hale said it would be for the speakers of the House of Commons and House of Lords to "take immediate steps to enable each House to meet as soon as possible".
"Unless there is some Parliamentary rule of which we are unaware, they can take immediate steps to enable each House to meet as soon as possible," she continued.
Unveiling the verdict of 11 justices, she said the prorogation of parliament itself was "void and of no effect" and therefore parliament has not been suspended.
In a statement released moments the unanimous ruling in central London, John Bercow, the Commons speaker, said he would be consulting with party leaders as to when parliament should reconvene. "I welcome the Supreme Court’s judgement that the prorogation of parliament was unlawful," he said.
Mr Bercow added: "The judges have rejected the government’s claim that closing down parliament for five weeks was merely standard practice to allow for a new Queen’s Speech."
"In reaching their conclusion, they have vindicated the right and duty of parliament to meet at this crucial time to scrutinise the executive and hold ministers to account. As the embodiment of our parliamentary democracy, the House of Commons must convene without delay. To this end, I will now consult the party leaders as a matter of urgency."
Keir Starmer, the shadow Brexit secretary, added that prime minister's questions should take place on Wednesday, so that Mr Johnson, who is currently in New York and the United Nations general assembly, can be interrogated by MPs.
Former Conservative cabinet minister, Amber Rudd, who resigned from the government over Mr Johnson's approach to Brexit, said: "Despite personal assurances from the PM, the cabinet was not shown the legal advice around this prorogation.
"This is an astonishing moment and I regret that the PM, who entered office with such goodwill, went down this route. I urge him to work with parliament to pass a deal."
Register for free to continue reading
Registration is a free and easy way to support our truly independent journalism
By registering, you will also enjoy limited access to Premium articles, exclusive newsletters, commenting, and virtual events with our leading journalists
Already have an account? sign in
Join our new commenting forum
Join thought-provoking conversations, follow other Independent readers and see their replies