With Mr Trump expected to travel to Scotland to visit his golf courses next week, Ms Sturgeon used a speech in London to stress the need for clean energy.
Carefully avoiding mentioning the US president by name, the first minister recalled Mr Trump's opposition to 11 wind turbines off the coast of Aberdeen.
Mr Trump's denial of climate change is well-known. In November 2012, he dubbed it a Chinese "hoax". By December 2015, he had taken to arguing climate change was now a "money making hoax".
In office, he grew global condemnation for pulling the US out of the Paris climate change agreement last year.
Speaking to the FutureFest conference, Ms Sturgeon said: "A few years ago you might have heard of these turbines because a famous golf course owner from America ... tried to block these wind turbines because he thought they spoiled the view from his new golf course."
Mr Trump – who once enjoyed a cordial relationship with Ms Sturgeon's predecessor, Alex Salmond – was originally given permission to build his golf courses by the Scottish government on the basis that any environmental damage would be justified by the scale of economic benefit being promised.
However, Mr Trump's objections to attempts to install a wind farm saw him take the Scottish government to court.
After a two year legal battle from 2013 to 2015, the UK's Supreme Court ruled against Mr Trump.
The wind farm is now operational - something Ms Sturgeon was keen to celebrate.
She added: "Just earlier this week, in fact, these amazing wind turbines generated their first electricity.
"They are marvels of engineering, but, even more importantly than that, very soon they will be generating enough electricity for almost three quarters of all homes in the city of Aberdeen.
"So, we continue to promote renewable energy projects like that one."
Mr Trump is due to arrive in the UK on 12 July.
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