Teachers and students at the University of Khartoum were arrested to prevent them partaking in other demonstrations, the Sudan Times has said.
Sudanese riot police fired tear gas at protesters in the city centre, according to local reports.
Rising prices triggered anti-government protests in December, and security forces responded by firing tear gas and live ammunition.
Nineteen people had been killed in the protests by 27 December, officials have estimated. But Amnesty International has reported a higher figure, of 37 dead.
Demonstrators have called for President Omar al-Bashir to step down from his role, a position he has held since 1989. A constitutional amendment suggested this month would see the leader retain his position past the end of his term in 2020.
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