The date of the trial has not yet been set.
The decision published on Friday named Silva and five others as co-conspirators in an alleged attempt to buy the silence of a former Petrobras director implicated in the scandal.
The obstruction-of-justice accusation against Silva comes from a plea bargain testimony by Sen. Delcidio do Amaral.
On Thursday, Silva's lawyers filed a petition at the UN Human Rights Committee alleging a lack of impartiality and abuse of power by another judge investigating the Petrobras scandal.
Silva leads the polls for the 2018 presidential elections.
© Associated Press