James Greene was arrested on suspicion of trespassing after refusing to leave Houston’s Freed-Montrose Library, but claimed he was detained for being a "white Christian" and accused staff of satanism.
He had entered the building to protest against Drag Queen Storytime, a programme of events in which performers read children’s stories to families.
The conservative radio host has previously been banned from the library for filming children during similar demonstrations.
Footage filmed by Mr Greene and posted on YouTube shows him remonstrating with police officers as they ask him to leave the building. Another clip shows him being handcuffed in the libary’s car park.
“We have a bunch of homosexuals that are molesting children,” he is heard telling officers. “They are doing it with your help.”
Outsmart, a Houston LGBTQ magazine, reported that officers took a concealed firearm off Mr Greene as they detained him.
Under Texas law, licensed gun owners can carry firearms in most public places, including libraries. There is no suggestion he was planning to use the gun.
“A manager asked us for assistance because he was banned from the library, and would not leave when he was asked,” a Houston Police Department (HPD) spokeswoman told the magazine.
He added: “He was previously banned for filming children at the library, and has been known to cause disturbances. Several officers had to escort him out.”
Police called an ambulance for Mr Greene after he began complaining of chest pains during his arrest. He was later released from hospital. Prosecutors have not filed any charges against him.
Mr Greene later recounted the incident in a Facebook video, wearing a Make America Great Again hat in front of a cardboard cut-out of Mr Trump. He claimed he was “arrested for being a white Christian" and accused a librarian at Freed-Montrose of being a "satanist"
“This cannot stand, we must fight back," added Mr Green, who hosts a programme on Raging Elephants Radio, a conservative online station in Texas.
Police are to step up security at the next Drag Queen Storytime, which is held at the library each month. The event has attracted protesters from anti-LGBTQ conservatives, as well counter-demonstrations from supporters.
Earlier this month a federal judge dismissed a lawsuit from a group of conservative Christian men who claimed Drag Queen Storytime violated their religious rights. In a court filing in defence, Houston Public Library said it was "committed to celebrating the diverse and culturally rich communities" in the city.
Regina Blake-DuBois, who was the drag queen reading at the library on the day of Mr Greene’s arrest, said: “While his intention might have been to ruin the day for everyone involved, it completely failed.
“Library management and HPD kept him away from the kids, and we had no knowledge it even happened until we were done.”
Local author Dennis Arrowsmith was also involved in the reading of his book The Armadillo’s Dream.
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