Thousands of demonstrators rallied outside the Supreme Court before several hundred moved inside Senate buildings on Thursday afternoon, chanting anti-Kavanaugh slogans and waving signs such as “Believe Survivors” and “Kava-Nope".
US Capitol Police said 302 people were arrested at the Hart and Dirksen Hart Senate Office Buildings – including Ms Schumer.
The actress, a distant relative of Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, told CNN she was among those taken in custody.
Earlier in the day, Ms Schumer told a rally: “A vote for Kavanaugh is a vote saying women don’t matter.”
Ms Ratajkowski tweeted a photo of herself and revealed she had also been arrested.
“Today I was arrested protesting the Supreme Court nomination of Brett Kavanaugh, a man who has been accused by multiple women of sexual assault,” she said. “Men who hurt women can no longer be placed in positions of power.”
The outbreak of angry dissent came ahead of deciding votes on Mr Kavanaugh’s nomination set to take place on Friday and Saturday.
President Donald Trump’s pick for the Supreme Court has been accused of sexual assault and misconduct by Professor Christine Blasey Ford and at least two other women – claims Mr Kavanaugh strenuously denied during a dramatic hearing last week.
“I’m sick and tired of seeing women’s experiences not be given weight,” said demonstrator Christine Zagrobelny, 29, a software engineer from New York City, at Thursday’s rally outside the Supreme Court.
Angela Trzepkowski, 55, from Delaware, said: “I believe Dr Ford, and I believe Kavanaugh is part of a big old boys club that are going to protect him no matter what.”
Police officers told protesters who had gathered inside the Senate buildings later on Thursday afternoon that they would be arrested if they did not leave.
The hundreds who refused to move were charged with crowding, obstructing, or incommoding, according to Capitol Police.
Several leading Republican lawmakers made clear they remain unmoved by fierce opposition to Mr Kavanaugh’s nomination.
Video posted on social media showed Senator Orrin Hatch waving away a group of protesters on Capitol Hill, telling them to “grow up”.
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said: “When the noise fades, when the uncorroborated mud washes away, what’s left is the distinguished nominee who stands before us.”
It remains unclear whether the FBI report will be made public.
Additional reporting by agencies
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