Ghafor Ahmad Jawed said the insurgents overran the base late on Monday night in Faryab province, in the district of Ghormach, after besieging it for three days.
The local provincial council chief, Mohammad Tahir Rahmani, says 43 troops were killed and wounded in the attack but did not give a breakdown.
He says the Taliban attack succeeded in taking control of the base, known as Camp Chinaya, which housed about 140 Afghan troops.
Mr Rahmani says the base fell to the Taliban after the soldiers resisted the three-day onslaught. He says they did not get any reinforcements and ran out of ammunition, food and water.
Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid claimed responsibility for the attack in Faryab.
He says 57 Afghan soldiers surrendered to the Taliban while 17 others were captured in battle. He says eight military vehicles were seized.
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