The rocket was fired from the Plestek Cosmodrome spaceport, roughly 500 miles north of Moscow, officials said.
The missile, also known as RS-28 Sarmat, travelled 3,600 miles before hitting its target on the Kura test range, an intercontinental ballistic missile impact area in the Russian Far East.
The weapon is said to be capable of carrying 12 nuclear warheads and could wipe out a whole country with a single strike.
Three ballistic missiles were also fired from nuclear submarines as part of the drills to test Russia's nuclear arsenal.
The Kremlin said President Vladimir Putin took part in the exercise and personally launched four ballistic missiles.
A statement from the defence ministry said they had "carried out an exercise to manage its strategic forces".
It added: "All objectives of the training have been successfully completed," .
Earlier this month, Russia conducted exercises involving intercontinental ballistic missile launchers.
The manoeuvres follow massive war games conducted last month by Russia and Belarus that caused jitters in some Nato countries, including Poland and the Baltics.
Additional reporting by agencies
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