Andrey Karlov was several minutes into a speech at the embassy-sponsored exhibition in the capital when a man wearing a suit and tie shouted "Allahu akbar" and fired at least eight shots, according to an AP photographer in the audience.
It was reported that the gunman shouted in Turkish: "Don't forget Aleppo. Don't forget Syria."
The man then yelled: "Stand back. Stand back. Only death will take me out of here.
"Anyone who has a role in this oppression will die one by one."
He also shouted "Allahu akbar," the Arabic phrase for "God is great" and continued in Arabic: "We are the descendants of those who supported the Prophet Muhammad, for jihad."
Foreign ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova made the announcement in a live televised statement.
Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova told reporters on Monday that the Russian ambassador to Turkey, Andrey Karlov, had died after being shot by a gunman.
"Today in Ankara as a result of an attack, the ambassador of the Russian Federation to Turkey, Andrey Gennadyevich Karlov, received a wound from which he died," Zakharova said.
"We regard this as a terrorist act.
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