The Ghanaian, who cost Arsenal £45m, injured his thigh last month and only returned to the side on Sunday.
Partey pulled up injured shortly before halftime and was standing on the touchline when Spurs broke from their own box. Arteta then urged him back on to try to stop the counter-attack but the midfielder could only run a few yards before stopping.
READ MORE: Kane and Son star as Spurs defeat Arsenal
"I was trying to push him but I don't think he realised the gravity of the situation when he left his position but that was probably because he was in a lot of pain," Arteta said.
"Suddenly they are coming to attack us and Thomas is walking to me and I was trying to push him. I haven't spoken to him so I don't know exactly how it happened or if he felt something really serious.
“But it is an injury and it is in the same area unfortunately. We don't know how bad it is. I was trying to push him but I don't think he realised the gravity of the situation when he left his position but that was probably because he was in a lot of pain.
“It's nothing we can do at the moment to resolve that.”
Partey's absence will be a cause further for concern for Arteta amid a busy schedule where Arsenal, 15th in the league, play eight games in 23 days.
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