Back-up goalkeeper Liam Kelly has also dropped out and is replaced by Robby McCrorie ahead of Friday’s Euro 2024 qualifier in Limassol.
Whitley Bay-born Anderson, who has a Scottish grandmother, was a surprise inclusion in Steve Clarke’s squad last week after deciding against switching allegiance to England following positive discussions with the Scotland boss.
The highly-regarded 20-year-old trained at Lesser Hampden earlier this week but it was revealed on Wednesday that he had left the squad due to injury and would have to wait a while longer to ensure he was officially committed to the Scots for the future.
Anderson, who has appeared as a substitute in each of Newcastle’s four Premier League matches this term, represented Scotland at under-16, under-17 and under-18 level and then played a training-ground friendly for England Under-19s against Arsenal Under-23s in 2021.
The attacking midfielder made a sole Scotland Under-21 appearance against Belgium in June 2022 before turning down further call-ups from Scot Gemmill as he considered his international future.
Clarke said last week upon calling up the Magpies player: “Elliot has been through the under-age groups with Scotland, he is one we have had an eye on.
“He had a little think about choosing between Scotland and England. We had some good discussions with the boy and his family and he has chosen to come with us, which is good for us now and certainly good for us in the future.”
Goalkeeper McCrorie will provide competition and cover for Angus Gunn and Zander Clark for the Cyprus match and next week’s friendly at home to England, following the withdrawal of Motherwell stopper Kelly.