National team coach Luis Enrique announced his group for the tournament, which was postponed last summer and will begin next month, on Monday morning.
Real Madrid defender Ramos, who captains his club and has often captained the national side, was omitted.
Due to the effects of the coronavirus pandemic, each coach was granted a 26-man allowance for their Euros squad.
Enrique, however, opted to name just 24 players, leaving out Ramos.
The former Barcelona coach in fact decided against including any players from Real Madrid.
Twenty-year-old Manchester City centre-back Eric Garcia, who has made just 12 appearances for the Premier League champions across all competitions this season, and team-mate Aymeric Laporte, who has had an injury-hit campaign, both got the nod over Ramos.
Enrique suggested that 35-year-old Ramos, an unused substitute in Real Madrid’s season-closing win against Villarreal on Saturday, has sustained an injury that influenced the decision to leave him out of the Euros squad.
“Any decision I made about Sergio Ramos would have been controversial,” Enrique said. “I know where I am, and accept there will be noise from the media.
“The Aymeric Laporte decision has nothing to do with the Ramos situation. [Ramos] is a top player, can help our national team a lot, plays at one of the best clubs in history.
“Please don’t mix Ramos not being in the squad with call-ups for others. I’d have liked him to be here, to have recovered.”
Previously, no Spanish squad at a major tournament had ever been without a single Real Madrid player.
When asked about the total absence of players from Los Blancos, Enrique said: “It is possible as players like Dani Carvajal and Sergio Ramos [had] injuries during the season.
“Apart from that I cannot pick the squad based on whether some people will be happy or not.”
Ramos won the 2008 and 2012 Euros with Spain, as well as the 2010 World Cup.
Spain Euro 2020 squad
Goalkeepers: David De Gea, Unai Simon, Robert Sanchez.
Defenders: Aymeric Laporte, Jordi Alba, Jose Gaya, Pau Torres, Eric Garcia, Diego Llorente, Cesar Azpilicueta, Marcos Llorente.
Midfielders: Sergio Busquets, Rodri, Pedri, Thiago, Koke, Fabian.
Forwards: Dani Olmo, Mikel Oyarzabal, Alvaro Morata, Gerard Moreno, Ferran Torres, Adama Traore, Pablo Sarabia.
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