The 2014 Golden Boot winner injured his calf in the first half against Senegal in the group stage and, despite missing training on the eve of the match, was given until the last moment to make the team.
Instead, the Real Madrid man's place went to Levante's Jefferson Lerma at Moscow's Spartak Stadium.
When the official teamsheets were uploaded to Fifa's website ahead of the game, Rodriguez was marked as "absent" - indicating he was not even available from the bench.
The same absent marker appeared alongside the names of his team-mate Miguel Borja and England's Fabian Delph, corresponding with the latter not being included after flying home to be with his wife for the birth of their third child.
Tournament organisers Fifa later released the official teamsheet for the game, with Rodriguez apparently absent.
England meanwhile reverted to the same starting XI which started the tournament.
None of the eight players drafted in for the defeat by Belgium held their spot, with Ashley Young keeping Danny Rose out at left wing-back and Raheem Sterling preferred to Marcus Rashford as Harry Kane's partner up front.
Join our new commenting forum
Join thought-provoking conversations, follow other Independent readers and see their replies