The World Anti-Doping Agency has been urged to "stop being played by the Russians" and reinstate a ban on the country's athletes.
Russia was in September set a deadline of 31 December to hand over data from its anti-doping laboratory in Moscow, with Wada poised to issue a statement on Tuesday, where it is expected to confirm the deadline has been missed.
United States Anti-Doping Agency chief executive Travis Tygart has described the episode as "a total joke and an embarrassment for Wada and the global anti-doping system".
"In September, Wada secretly moved the goal posts and reinstated Russia against the wishes of athletes, governments and the public," Tygart said.
"In doing this Wada guaranteed Russia would turn over the evidence of its state-supported doping scheme by today (31 December).
"No-one is surprised this deadline was ignored and it's time for Wada to stop being played by the Russians and immediately declare them non-compliant for failing yet again to meet the deadline.
"We hold athletes strictly accountable, so states that intentionally rob clean athletes and corrupt the Olympic values - through the worst doping scandal in sporting history no less - should also be held accountable."
Wada is most likely to refer the matter to the independent compliance review committee at its next meeting on 14 January.
If the Russian Anti-Doping Agency (Rusada) is declared non-compliant, its nation's athletes will again be banned from international competition, but Russia's sports minister on Saturday said a deal had been reached.
Any compromise in extending the deadline is sure to be met with criticism by athletes and officials across Olympic and Paralympic sport.
Wada in September lifted its suspension of Rusada, which was imposed in November 2015, pending the meeting of conditions in a 'roadmap to compliance'. The controversial move upset athletes and athlete groups.
One of the conditions was to allow independent access to the raw data held at the Moscow lab, but Wada on 21 December admitted it had been unable to "complete its mission".
The lab is sealed for a Russian federal investigation and the five-person independent team, led by Dr Jose Antonio Pascual, was told its equipment to be used for the data extraction was required to be certified under Russian law.
The state-sponsored use of performance-enhancing drugs by Russians in Olympic and Paralympic sports emerged in independent reports in November 2015 and July and December 2016.
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