Prime Minister Boris Johnson, Foreign Secretary Liz Truss and Defence Secretary Ben Wallace are also among 13 who have been barred from entering the country in response to UK sanctions.
Russia’s foreign ministry said the move to create the list was due to the “unprecedented hostile actions of the British Government, expressed, in particular, in the imposition of sanctions against top officials”.
It added: “The Russophobic course of action of the British authorities, whose main goal is to stir up negative attitude toward our country, curtailing of bilateral ties in almost all areas, are detrimental to the wellbeing and interests of the residents of Britain.”
Ms Sturgeon issued a statement in response, saying: “Putin is a war criminal and I will not shy away from condemning him and his regime.
“Scotland is determined to take the strongest possible action to isolate and penalise his regime, and do everything possible to support the people of Ukraine.
“We must make sure that those on the side of freedom and democracy work together to ensure Putin’s regime, and his network of oligarchs, are as isolated as possible.
“International condemnation – not just in words but in actions – against Russia must be as strong as possible.
“It falls to every leader to choose a side in this unprovoked aggression. I am clear that I stand with Ukraine and against Putin. And Scotland is clear – we all stand with Ukraine.”
News of the list came as Russian troops restarted assaults on the Ukrainian capital after a brief reprieve.
A UK Government spokesperson said: “The UK and our international partners stand united in condemning the Russian government’s reprehensible actions in Ukraine and calling for the Kremlin to stop the war.
“We remain resolute in our support for Ukraine.”