The 32-year-old woman was allegedly driving along a quiet residential street when she was flagged down by a man claiming his friend, who was sitting on the pavement, was unwell.
But when she got out of her car, the first man turned on her with a blade and told her to hand over her face masks.
The pair, wearing helmets, ordered her to open her boot and took what they could before fleeing.
The victim told France 3 the suspects only managed to get away with 15 surgical masks since she did not have her kit with her.
She added: “They were quite aggressive. When they saw there was only that, they fled with the scooter.”
The nurse has reported the attack, which took place on Thursday evening in the commune of Heillecourt, in northeastern France, to police.
She said it was difficult to give a detailed description of the men because they were wearing helmets, but that they appeared to be aged in their 20s.
The woman, who was been a nurse for nine years, said the attack had not put her off working during the current coronavirus pandemic.
She told France 3: “Two of my patients died from Covid-19, two others are dying; people over 75 years old.
“The situation is already very anxiety-provoking. I can’t stop now.”